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12.2: Glossary- Joints - Biology

12.2: Glossary- Joints - Biology


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abduction: movement in the coronal plane that moves a limb laterally away from the body; spreading of the fingers

acetabular labrum: lip of fibrocartilage that surrounds outer margin of the acetabulum on the hip bone

adduction: movement in the coronal plane that moves a limb medially toward or across the midline of the body; bringing fingers together

amphiarthrosis: slightly mobile joint

annular ligament: intrinsic ligament of the elbow articular capsule that surrounds and supports the head of the radius at the proximal radioulnar joint

anterior cruciate ligament: intracapsular ligament of the knee; extends from anterior, superior surface of the tibia to the inner aspect of the lateral condyle of the femur; resists hyperextension of knee

anterior talofibular ligament: intrinsic ligament located on the lateral side of the ankle joint, between talus bone and lateral malleolus of fibula; supports talus at the talocrural joint and resists excess inversion of the foot

articular capsule: connective tissue structure that encloses the joint cavity of a synovial joint

articular cartilage: thin layer of hyaline cartilage that covers the articulating surfaces of bones at a synovial joint

articular disc: meniscus; a fibrocartilage structure found between the bones of some synovial joints; provides padding or smooths movements between the bones; strongly unites the bones together

articulation: joint of the body

atlanto-occipital joint: articulation between the occipital condyles of the skull and the superior articular processes of the atlas (C1 vertebra)

atlantoaxial joint: series of three articulations between the atlas (C1) vertebra and the axis (C2) vertebra, consisting of the joints between the inferior articular processes of C1 and the superior articular processes of C2, and the articulation between the dens of C2 and the anterior arch of C1

ball-and-socket joint: synovial joint formed between the spherical end of one bone (the ball) that fits into the depression of a second bone (the socket); found at the hip and shoulder joints; functionally classified as a multiaxial joint

biaxial joint: type of diarthrosis; a joint that allows for movements within two planes (two axes)

bursa: connective tissue sac containing lubricating fluid that prevents friction between adjacent structures, such as skin and bone, tendons and bone, or between muscles

calcaneofibular ligament: intrinsic ligament located on the lateral side of the ankle joint, between the calcaneus bone and lateral malleolus of the fibula; supports the talus bone at the ankle joint and resists excess inversion of the foot

cartilaginous joint: joint at which the bones are united by hyaline cartilage (synchondrosis) or fibrocartilage (symphysis)

circumduction: circular motion of the arm, thigh, hand, thumb, or finger that is produced by the sequential combination of flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction

condyloid joint: synovial joint in which the shallow depression at the end of one bone receives a rounded end from a second bone or a rounded structure formed by two bones; found at the metacarpophalangeal joints of the fingers or the radiocarpal joint of the wrist; functionally classified as a biaxial joint

coracohumeral ligament: intrinsic ligament of the shoulder joint; runs from the coracoid process of the scapula to the anterior humerus

deltoid ligament: broad intrinsic ligament located on the medial side of the ankle joint; supports the talus at the talocrural joint and resists excess eversion of the foot

depression: downward (inferior) motion of the scapula or mandible

diarthrosis: freely mobile joint

dorsiflexion: movement at the ankle that brings the top of the foot toward the anterior leg

elbow joint: humeroulnar joint

elevation: upward (superior) motion of the scapula or mandible

eversion: foot movement involving the intertarsal joints of the foot in which the bottom of the foot is turned laterally, away from the midline

extension: movement in the sagittal plane that increases the angle of a joint (straightens the joint); motion involving posterior bending of the vertebral column or returning to the upright position from a flexed position

extrinsic ligament: ligament located outside of the articular capsule of a synovial joint

femoropatellar joint: portion of the knee joint consisting of the articulation between the distal femur and the patella

fibrous joint: joint where the articulating areas of the adjacent bones are connected by fibrous connective tissue

fibular collateral ligament: extrinsic ligament of the knee joint that spans from the lateral epicondyle of the femur to the head of the fibula; resists hyperextension and rotation of the extended knee

flexion: movement in the sagittal plane that decreases the angle of a joint (bends the joint); motion involving anterior bending of the vertebral column

fontanelles: expanded areas of fibrous connective tissue that separate the braincase bones of the skull prior to birth and during the first year after birth

glenohumeral joint: shoulder joint; articulation between the glenoid cavity of the scapula and head of the humerus; multiaxial ball-and-socket joint that allows for flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, circumduction, and medial/lateral rotation of the humerus

glenohumeral ligament: one of the three intrinsic ligaments of the shoulder joint that strengthen the anterior articular capsule

glenoid labrum: lip of fibrocartilage located around the outside margin of the glenoid cavity of the scapula

gomphosis: type of fibrous joint in which the root of a tooth is anchored into its bony jaw socket by strong periodontal ligaments

hinge joint: synovial joint at which the convex surface of one bone articulates with the concave surface of a second bone; includes the elbow, knee, ankle, and interphalangeal joints; functionally classified as a uniaxial joint

humeroradial joint: articulation between the capitulum of the humerus and head of the radius

humeroulnar joint: articulation between the trochlea of humerus and the trochlear notch of the ulna; uniaxial hinge joint that allows for flexion/extension of the forearm

hyperextension: excessive extension of joint, beyond the normal range of movement

hyperflexion: excessive flexion of joint, beyond the normal range of movement

iliofemoral ligament: intrinsic ligament spanning from the ilium of the hip bone to the femur, on the superior-anterior aspect of the hip joint

inferior rotation: movement of the scapula during upper limb adduction in which the glenoid cavity of the scapula moves in a downward direction as the medial end of the scapular spine moves in an upward direction

interosseous membrane: wide sheet of fibrous connective tissue that fills the gap between two parallel bones, forming a syndesmosis; found between the radius and ulna of the forearm and between the tibia and fibula of the leg

intracapsular ligament: ligament that is located within the articular capsule of a synovial joint

intrinsic ligament: ligament that is fused to or incorporated into the wall of the articular capsule of a synovial joint

inversion: foot movement involving the intertarsal joints of the foot in which the bottom of the foot is turned toward the midline

ischiofemoral ligament: intrinsic ligament spanning from the ischium of the hip bone to the femur, on the posterior aspect of the hip joint

joint cavity: space enclosed by the articular capsule of a synovial joint that is filled with synovial fluid and contains the articulating surfaces of the adjacent bones

joint interzone: site within a growing embryonic limb bud that will become a synovial joint

joint: site at which two or more bones or bone and cartilage come together (articulate)

lateral (external) rotation: movement of the arm at the shoulder joint or the thigh at the hip joint that moves the anterior surface of the limb away from the midline of the body

lateral excursion: side-to-side movement of the mandible away from the midline, toward either the right or left side

lateral flexion: bending of the neck or body toward the right or left side

lateral meniscus: C-shaped fibrocartilage articular disc located at the knee, between the lateral condyle of the femur and the lateral condyle of the tibia

lateral tibiofemoral joint: portion of the knee consisting of the articulation between the lateral condyle of the tibia and the lateral condyle of the femur; allows for flexion/extension at the knee

ligament of the head of the femur: intracapsular ligament that runs from the acetabulum of the hip bone to the head of the femur

ligament: strong band of dense connective tissue spanning between bones

medial (internal) rotation: movement of the arm at the shoulder joint or the thigh at the hip joint that brings the anterior surface of the limb toward the midline of the body

medial excursion: side-to-side movement that returns the mandible to the midline

medial meniscus: C-shaped fibrocartilage articular disc located at the knee, between the medial condyle of the femur and medial condyle of the tibia

medial tibiofemoral joint: portion of the knee consisting of the articulation between the medial condyle of the tibia and the medial condyle of the femur; allows for flexion/extension at the knee

meniscus: articular disc

multiaxial joint: type of diarthrosis; a joint that allows for movements within three planes (three axes)

opposition: thumb movement that brings the tip of the thumb in contact with the tip of a finger

patellar ligament: ligament spanning from the patella to the anterior tibia; serves as the final attachment for the quadriceps femoris muscle

periodontal ligament: band of dense connective tissue that anchors the root of a tooth into the bony jaw socket

pivot joint: synovial joint at which the rounded portion of a bone rotates within a ring formed by a ligament and an articulating bone; functionally classified as uniaxial joint

plane joint: synovial joint formed between the flattened articulating surfaces of adjacent bones; functionally classified as a multiaxial joint

plantar flexion: foot movement at the ankle in which the heel is lifted off of the ground

posterior cruciate ligament: intracapsular ligament of the knee; extends from the posterior, superior surface of the tibia to the inner aspect of the medial condyle of the femur; prevents anterior displacement of the femur when the knee is flexed and weight bearing

posterior talofibular ligament: intrinsic ligament located on the lateral side of the ankle joint, between the talus bone and lateral malleolus of the fibula; supports the talus at the talocrural joint and resists excess inversion of the foot

pronated position: forearm position in which the palm faces backward

pronation: forearm motion that moves the palm of the hand from the palm forward to the palm backward position

protraction: anterior motion of the scapula or mandible

proximal radioulnar joint: articulation between head of radius and radial notch of ulna; uniaxial pivot joint that allows for rotation of radius during pronation/supination of forearm

pubofemoral ligament: intrinsic ligament spanning from the pubis of the hip bone to the femur, on the anterior-inferior aspect of the hip joint

radial collateral ligament: intrinsic ligament on the lateral side of the elbow joint; runs from the lateral epicondyle of humerus to merge with the annular ligament

reposition: movement of the thumb from opposition back to the anatomical position (next to index finger)

retraction: posterior motion of the scapula or mandible

rotation: movement of a bone around a central axis (atlantoaxial joint) or around its long axis (proximal radioulnar joint; shoulder or hip joint); twisting of the vertebral column resulting from the summation of small motions between adjacent vertebrae

rotator cuff: strong connective tissue structure formed by the fusion of four rotator cuff muscle tendons to the articular capsule of the shoulder joint; surrounds and supports superior, anterior, lateral, and posterior sides of the humeral head

saddle joint: synovial joint in which the articulating ends of both bones are convex and concave in shape, such as at the first carpometacarpal joint at the base of the thumb; functionally classified as a biaxial joint

subacromial bursa: bursa that protects the supraspinatus muscle tendon and superior end of the humerus from rubbing against the acromion of the scapula

subcutaneous bursa: bursa that prevents friction between skin and an underlying bone

submuscular bursa: bursa that prevents friction between bone and a muscle or between adjacent muscles

subscapular bursa: bursa that prevents rubbing of the subscapularis muscle tendon against the scapula

subtalar joint: articulation between the talus and calcaneus bones of the foot; allows motions that contribute to inversion/eversion of the foot

subtendinous bursa: bursa that prevents friction between bone and a muscle tendon

superior rotation: movement of the scapula during upper limb abduction in which the glenoid cavity of the scapula moves in an upward direction as the medial end of the scapular spine moves in a downward direction

supinated position: forearm position in which the palm faces anteriorly (anatomical position)

supination: forearm motion that moves the palm of the hand from the palm backward to the palm forward position

suture: fibrous joint that connects the bones of the skull (except the mandible); an immobile joint (synarthrosis)

symphysis: type of cartilaginous joint where the bones are joined by fibrocartilage

synarthrosis: immobile or nearly immobile joint

synchondrosis: type of cartilaginous joint where the bones are joined by hyaline cartilage

syndesmosis: type of fibrous joint in which two separated, parallel bones are connected by an interosseous membrane

synostosis: site at which adjacent bones or bony components have fused together

synovial fluid: thick, lubricating fluid that fills the interior of a synovial joint

synovial joint: joint at which the articulating surfaces of the bones are located within a joint cavity formed by an articular capsule

synovial membrane: thin layer that lines the inner surface of the joint cavity at a synovial joint; produces the synovial fluid

talocrural joint: ankle joint; articulation between the talus bone of the foot and medial malleolus of the tibia, distal tibia, and lateral malleolus of the fibula; a uniaxial hinge joint that allows only for dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of the foot

temporomandibular joint (TMJ): articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the mandibular fossa and articular tubercle of the temporal bone of the skull; allows for depression/elevation (opening/closing of mouth), protraction/retraction, and side-to-side motions of the mandible

tendon sheath: connective tissue that surrounds a tendon at places where the tendon crosses a joint; contains a lubricating fluid to prevent friction and allow smooth movements of the tendon

tendon: dense connective tissue structure that anchors a muscle to bone

tibial collateral ligament: extrinsic ligament of knee joint that spans from the medial epicondyle of the femur to the medial tibia; resists hyperextension and rotation of extended knee

ulnar collateral ligament: intrinsic ligament on the medial side of the elbow joint; spans from the medial epicondyle of the humerus to the medial ulna

uniaxial joint: type of diarthrosis; joint that allows for motion within only one plane (one axis)

zygapophysial joints: facet joints; plane joints between the superior and inferior articular processes of adjacent vertebrae that provide for only limited motions between the vertebrae


The Role of Joints in Your Body

Elizabeth Quinn is an exercise physiologist, sports medicine writer, and fitness consultant for corporate wellness and rehabilitation clinics.

Jonathan Cluett, MD, is a board-certified orthopedic surgeon with subspecialty training in sports medicine and arthroscopic surgery.

In human anatomy, a joint is the physical point of connection between two bones. For example, the knee joint is the point of connection between the femur (thigh bone) and the tibia (shin bone).  

Joints contain a variety of fibrous connective tissue. Ligaments connect the bones to each other. Tendons connect muscle to bone. Cartilage covers the ends of bones and provides cushioning.


Glossary Of Horse Terminology - Horse Terms & Definitions

aged --?more than seven years old. The average lifespan of a horse is 20 to 25 years, although many horses and some horses live for 30 years or more.

aids --?the use of hands, legs, seat, weight, and voice to influence a horse these are natural aids. Artificial aids?whip, spurs?may be used to reinforce the natural aids.

Appaloosa --?a spotted horse breed originating in the land of the Nez Perce Indians (northwestern United States). As compared to a Paint or Pinto, Appaloosas have small spots or flecks of white.

Arabian --?the oldest pure breed of horse, originating in the Arabian desert. Noted for sensitivity and finely chiseled heads.

barn sour --?herd-bound a dislike of leaving the company of other horses, or of leaving the stable.

bars --?the toothless gap between incisors and molars where the bit rests in a horse&aposs mouth.

billets --?leather straps under the flaps of English saddles, to which the buckles of the girth attach.

bit -- metal mouthpiece of a bridle.

blaze? --?a wide swath of white on a horse&aposs face, running from above the eyes to the nostrils.

blemish --?a scar or defect, usually caused by injury or disease, that doesn&apost affect serviceability.

barrel racing --?a sport in which the Western horse-and-rider pair gallop around barrels the rider with the fastest time without overturning a barrel is the winner.

bran mash -- a warm meal made of wheat bran, warm water, and a little sweet feed concentrate and chopped apples or carrots an occasional treat for horses.

breeches --?knee-length, fitted riding pants worn with tall English boots.

breed show --?a show in which competition is limited to a single breed of horse the event is sanctioned by that breed&aposs registry. (For example, the Appaloosa Horse Club sanctions breed shows for Appaloosas.)

broke --?trained a "dead broke" horse is a well-trained and obedient one.

canter --?the gait between walk and gallop it consists of three beats followed by a moment of suspension, and has "leads" (in which legs on one side of the horse, front and back, reach farther forward than the legs on the other side).

chaps --?leather or suede leggings worn over jeans or riding pants and buckled around the waist. Standard Western show attire also worn informally by English riders. Half chaps zip or buckle over the lower leg.

cinch --?the leather or fabric band that secures a Western saddle to the horse. Some Western saddles have a back cinch, which is not pulled tight. (The English equivalent of a cinch is a girth.)

cloverleaf --?the three-barrel pattern that barrel racers run the path around the barrels resembles a cloverleaf.

Coggins test --?a blood test to detect exposure to equine infectious anemia proof of a "negative Coggins" is often required before a horse is allowed on the grounds of a horse show or a boarding stable.

colic --?pain in a horse&aposs abdomen, ranging from mild to life-threateningly severe. Colic is the number one killer of horses.

competitive trail riding --?a sport in which English or Western riders negotiate a preset trail, and are judged on horsemanship and the fitness of their mounts, rather than speed.

conformation --?the physical structure and build of a horse.

crest --?the top of a horse&aposs neck, from which the mane grows.

cross country jumping --?riding over a course of fences and obstacles constructed over natural terrain.

croup -- art of the hindquarters from the highest point to the top of the tail.

curb bit --?a bit that uses sidepieces ("shanks") and a strap or chain under the chin to create leverage on the bars of the mouth more severe than a snaffle bit.

cutting --?a judged event in which the Western horse-and-rider pair must cut one calf from a herd and keep it from returning to the herd.

diagonal --?a pair of legs moving in unison at the trot (e.g. right front, left hind). A correctly posting rider (said to be "on the correct diagonal") rises as the outside front leg reaches forward.

dressage --?a French term meaning training. In the discipline of dressage, the English horse-and-rider pair execute gymnastic movements that highlight the horse&aposs balance, suppleness, cadence, and obedience. Dressage principles, which trace to the earliest days of riding, are used in virtually every form of riding.

endurance riding --?contests judged for speed and fitness of the horse over 25-, 50-, and 100-mile courses.

equitation --?the art of riding. Equitation classes are judged on the rider&aposs correctness of form, proper use of aids, and control over the horse classes are held for English equitation, Western equitation (usually called Western horsemanship), and equitation over fences (sometimes called medal classes).

eventing --?a sport, also called combined training, in which English horse-and-rider pairs compete in dressage, cross-country jumping, and jumping in an arena.

farrier --?a person who trims and shoes horses&apos feet.

fetlock --?the joint just above the hoof that seems like an ankle (although it doesn&apost correspond to the human ankle).

flank --?the sensitive area of a horse&aposs side between his rib cage and hindquarters.

forehand --?a horse&aposs head, neck, shoulders, and front legs. A horse traveling "on the forehand" is not carrying enough weight on its hindquarters.

frog --?the dense, shock-absorbing, triangular growth on the underside of the hoof.

founder --?a serious disease affecting the hooves, often caused by eating too much grain or green grass especially problematic for ponies. Also called laminitis.

gaits -- the different ways in which a horse travels, including walk, trot, canter, and gallop. So-called "gaited horses" have specialty gaits, such as the running walk and the pace.

gaited horse --?one possessing a gait beyond the natural walk, trot, and canter gaited breeds include the American Saddlebred, Icelandic, Missouri Fox Trotter, Paso Fino, Peruvian Paso, Tennessee Walking Horse.

gallop --?the fastest gait it consists of four beats followed by a moment of suspension.

garters --?leather straps that buckle under the knee to keep jodhpur pants from riding up.

gelding --?a castrated male horse.

girth --?the leather or fabric band that secures an English saddle to the horse. (The Western equivalent is a cinch.)

grade horse --?one not registered with a breed association, and usually not a purebred.

green --?inexperienced may be applied to a horse of any age having limited training, or a rider. The old horseman&aposs adage says, "Green plus green makes black and blue."

ground training --?schooling of the horse from the ground, rather than from the saddle. Includes in-hand work and longeing.

gymkhana --?competitions offering timed obstacle classes and games such as barrel racing and pole bending.

hackamore --?a bitless bridle control comes from the pressure of the noseband on the bridge of the horse&aposs nose.

halter --?the headgear with which a horse is led made of leather, synthetic webbing, or rope.

halter class -- an event in which horses are led in hand and judged on the basis of their conformation.

hand --?the unit of measurement for determining the height of horses and ponies. One hand equals four inches thus a 14.3-hand horse is 59 inches tall from his withers (bony point between the neck and back) to the ground.

hock --?the large, angular joint halfway up a horse&aposs hind leg.

horn --?the part of a Western saddle that extends up from the pommel (front), around which a rope may be wrapped and secured.

hunter class --?a judged class in which the English horse-and-rider pair must negotiate a course of fences with willingness, regularity, and style.

jodhpurs --?ankle-length, fitted English riding pants worn with ankle-high jodhpur boots. This ensemble is popular among young riders.

jog --?a slow trot performed by Western horses also the term for the in-hand evaluation for soundness in hunter classes at some large shows.

jumper class --?a class in which the English horse-and-rider pair must negotiate a course of fences only knock-downs and time penalties count (as opposed to a hunter class, in which proper form is judged).

Kimberwicke --?an English bit that combines snaffle rings with a mild curb-bit action.

laminitis --?a serious disease affecting the hooves, often caused by eating too much grain or green grass especially problematic for ponies. Also called founder.

lead --?a pattern of footfalls at the canter in which the legs on one side of the horse, front and back, "lead" (reach farther forward than) the legs on the other side. In a circle to the right, the right (inside) legs should lead, and vice versa.

lead-line class --?a class for the youngest children in which all mounts are lead by an adult or older child.

leg up --?a boost into the saddle, given by someone standing next to the rider and grasping her lower left leg with both hands as the rider bends her leg at the knee.

loafing shed --?a three-sided shelter, in a pasture or paddock, which a horse can enter at will for protection from the elements.

longe --?to work a horse on a long line (up to 30 foot or more) in a circle around you (rhymes with "sponge").

lope --?a slow canter performed by Western horses.

mare --?a female horse four years of age or older.

markings? -- white areas on a horse&aposs face and/or legs commonly used to identify individual animals.

martingale --?a piece of equipment designed to effect a horse&aposs head carriage or to prevent the tossing of the head attaches to the girth and to the reins or bridle.

medal class --?an equitation class over fences.

Morgan --?a breed descending from one prepotent sire, Justin Morgan of Vermont. Sturdy and compact, with active gaits.

mouth, hard or soft --?describes the horse&aposs relative responsiveness to the reins.

mucking out? -- removing manure and soiled bedding from a stall or pen.

near side --?the left side of the horse (from which traditionally most handling, and mounting, is done).

off side --?the right side of the horse.

paddock --?a small pasture or enclosure larger than a pen.

Paint Horse --?a horse, usually of stock type, registered with the American Paint Horse Association it has a two-toned body color (white patches and areas over the base color).

pastern --?the part of the horse&aposs leg between the hoof and the fetlock.

pelham --?a one-piece English bit equipped to handle four reins a sort of "part snaffle, part curb" bit.

pen --?an outdoor enclosure large enough for a horse to walk around in smaller than a paddock.

Pinto?--?A horse or pony of varying type, with a two-toned body color (generally large blocks of white), registered with the Pinto Horse Association of America, Inc. A pinto (lower case) is any horse or pony with a two-toned coat.

playday --?an informal competition featuring speed events and games, such as pole bending and trotting race.

pleasure --?a judged event in which the horse&aposs smoothness, manner of going, and obedience are judged there are both English and Western pleasure classes.

pole bending -- a timed event in which contestants must weave in and out a line of poles.

poll --?the bony bump between a horse&aposs ears.

pommel --?the front, top part of a saddle. The pommel of an English saddle is arched that of a Western saddle bears a horn.

pony --?any equine that measures under 14.2 hands (58 inches) from its withers to the ground. Pony classes at hunter/jumper shows may be divided into small (under 12.2), medium (under 13.2), and large (under 14.2).

Pony of the Americas (POA) --?A pony breed created by crossing Shetland ponies with Appaloosa horses generally sporting Appaloosa coat patterns. POAs are commonly used as children&aposs mounts.

posting --?rising and sitting in the saddle at the trot, in rhythm with the horse&aposs strides. Posting takes the "bounce" out of the trot.

pre-purchase exam --?the process of having a veterinarian check your prospective horse or pony for health and soundness also called a vet check or "vetting."

pulling back --?a bad habit in which the horse pulls back violently on the lead rope when tied, potentially injuring himself and anyone around him.

Quarter Horse --?A well-muscled, good-tempered, versatile breed that&aposs popular among adults and children alike. The American Quarter Horse Association is the largest single-breed registry in the world.

Quarter Pony --?a pony of Quarter Horse type and disposition commonly used as a children&aposs mount.

rearing --?the raising up of a horse onto its hind legs when being led or ridden a bad habit that should be handled only by a professional.

reins --?the leather lines that attach to the bit and are held in the rider&aposs hands to guide and control a horse.

reined cow horse --?a judged event in which the Western horse-and-rider pair must perform tasks related to cattle herding, plus a reining pattern. Also called working cow horse.

reining --?a judged event in which the Western horse-and-rider pair perform a pattern of circles and straight lines, with sliding stops and spins in place.

riding sneakers --?athletic-styled shoes designed specifically for riding, with steel reinforcement and an adequate heel.

ring sour --?the attitude of a horse that doesn&apost enjoy being ridden in an arena and looks for ways to leave the ring or quit working.

roping --?a timed event in which the Western rider must chase and rope a steer.

school horse --?an experienced, usually older horse used as a lesson mount also called lesson horse. Good school horses make wonderful first mounts, but they are rarely for sale.

schooling show --?a "practice" show for novice riders and advanced riders schooling green horses.

Shetland Pony --?smallest of the pony breeds, originating in the Shetland Islands.

show jumping --?a timed event in which the English horse-and-rider pair must negotiate a course of fences without knocking any part of them down.

showmanship --?an in-hand class in which the Western handler is judged on his/her ability to present the horse effectively to the judge.

shying -- responding to a sound, movement, or object by suddenly jumping to the side or running off. A horse that shies a lot is said to be "spooky."

snaffle bit --?a bit with a jointed mouthpiece and rings at the ends works first on the corners of the mouth. Less severe than a curb bit.

spooky --?easily startled. A spooky horse is not suitable for a beginning rider of any age.

stallion --?an unaltered male horse four years of age or older.

star --?a white patch on a horse&aposs forehead.

stirrup leathers --?the straps connecting the stirrups to an English saddle also known as "leathers."

stirrups --?the part of the saddle that supports a rider&aposs feet metal for English saddles (thus often called "stirrup irons") and wood-and-leather for Western saddles.

tack --?the gear used on a horse, e.g. saddles, bridles.

tacking up --?saddling and bridling a horse.

topline --?the outline of a horse from the top of his head to the top of his tail.

Thoroughbred --?an English breed tracing to three Arabian sires. The world&aposs premier race horse, but also used for a wide range of sports, especially jumping. The word refers specifically to a horse registered with The Jockey Club, and should not be used to denote "purebred."

trot --?the two-beat gait between the walk and the canter.

vaulting --?gymnastic maneuvers performed on the back of a cantering horse.

walk --?the slowest gait, consisting of four beats.

walk-trot class --?a class for beginning riders in which only the walk and trot (and not the canter, or lope) are called for.

Warmblood --?a general term for European breeds of sport horses. Examples include Dutch Warmblood, Hanoverian, and Holsteiner.

Welsh Pony --?a pony originating in Wales excellent for riding and commonly used as a children&aposs mount.

withers --?the bony point at the base of the neck, just in front of where the saddle rests. Horses are measured from the top of the withers to the ground.

working cow horse --?a judged event in which the horse-and-rider pair must perform tasks related to cattle herding, plus a reining pattern. Also called reined cow horse.


Osteoarthritis

Q. What are the complications of osteoarthritis? I have been suffering from osteoarthritis for over a year now. What are the complications of this disease?

Q. What Are the Possible Treatments for Osteoarthritis? My sister is suffering from osteoarthritis. What are the possible treatments for this disease?

Q. Can knee pain at childhood be connected to osteoarthritis? My mother is suffering from osteoarthritis (OA). She is 72 years old and the OA is a major problem in her life. My son is 10 years old. He has a relapsing knee pain. His pain occurs mostly at day time but can wake him from sleep. The pain is in both legs. Is my son in a risk group for OA?


Organizations Organizations

Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.


12.2: Glossary- Joints - Biology

apron The crab abdomen, which is folded under the body.

Atlantic blue crab Known by its scientific name Callinectes sapidus in Greek " Callinectes " means "beautiful swimmer," and " sapidus " means tasty or savory.

backfin The swimming or paddle fin. The rear-most fin of the crab, which is a flat, oval-shaped swimming fin. Also a type of crab meat.

buckram crab A crab with a leathery, semi-hard shell, approximately 12 to 24 hours after molting the stage past the paper shell stage.

buster Crab in an advanced stage of molting, wherein the old exoskeleton (hard shell) has cracked under the lateral spines.

carapace Top part of the shell of the crab.

Crustacea Class of invertebrates to which the Atlantic blue crab belongs the crab is a crustacean.

dead man's fingers The gills, elongated, spongy-looking organs. The term probably refers to the fact that the gray "shriveled" gills vaguely resemble the fingers of a dead person. They are not poisonous but do have an unpleasant taste and texture. Remove and discard when cleaning crabs.

doubler Mating crabs the male carries the soft-shell female crab, which has just completed its terminal molt, beneath it.

hard crab Crab with a fully hardened shell, from about four days after molting.

jimmy crab A male blue crab, distinguishable by its T-shaped apron. Regionally, the apron is said to resemble the Washington Monument.

megalopa (megalopae, pl.) Final larval stage between the zoea and juvenile stage.

molt The process by which a blue crab grows larger by periodically shedding its smaller shell. Blue crabs are invertebrates, meaning they lack a spinal column. Instead, crabs have rigid exoskeletons (hard shells). The shell grows in discrete stages through molting, while growth of internal tissue is more continuous. Unlike male crabs that continue to molt and grow throughout their entire lives, females stop growing when they reach sexual maturity, usually after about 20 molts. During this terminal molt, mating takes place.

mustard Yellow substance found inside a cooked crab. Contrary to popular belief, the "mustard" is not fat, rather it's the crab's hepatopancreas, the organ responsible for filtering impurities from the crab's blood. Although many find its flavor distinct and delicious, it is recommended that you do not eat this since many chemical contaminants concentrate in the organ.

paper shell A recently shed crab, approximately 9 to 12 hours after molting. It has a slightly stiff shell, but is still considered a soft-shell.

peeler crab Hard crab with a fully formed soft-shell beneath it is ready to begin molting. Crab shedders can tell how soon a peeler will molt by looking at signs on the crab's shell that indicate two weeks (white sign), one week (pink sign), two days (red sign), or hours (rank peeler) prior to molt.

sally crab or she-crab Immature female, distinguished by a triangular-shaped apron.

shed Either the empty shell or the process of casting off the shell.

soft crab, soft-shell crab A crab immediately after shedding its old shell its new shell is soft and pliable, and the crab is marketable as a soft-shell.

sook A mature female, distinguished by its bell-shaped apron. Regionally, the apron is said to resemble the dome of the nation's Capitol building.

sponge crab Female crab carrying an egg mass.

terminal molt The final molt, usually associated with the female. At the time mating takes place, she is in the soft-shell state and will not molt again after producing an egg mass. Males continue to molt throughout their lives.

zoea (zoeae, pl.) The larva that hatches from the female crab's egg multiple zoea stages are followed by the megalopa stage.


THE JOINTS

What is a joint?
A joint is a point, place or region where two or more bones meet or articulate. Movement of the body or body parts are made possible through the aid of joints and muscles. So as it is, there cannot be any effective movement in vertebrates without the joints in place.
Most importantly these joints are held together by ligaments which are made of stiff, partially elastic fibres. Ligaments joins bones to bones. Suffice me to say that the amazing way the internal skeletal system is designed leaves with profound admiration for the creator even though science frowns at the mention of the name God the creator of the universe.


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Contents

When grown in a laboratory, Candida appears as large, round, white or cream (albicans means "whitish" in Latin) colonies, which emit a yeasty odor on agar plates at room temperature. [12] C. albicans ferments glucose and maltose to acid and gas, sucrose to acid, and does not ferment lactose, which helps to distinguish it from other Candida species. [13]

Recent molecular phylogenetic studies show that the genus Candida, as currently defined, is extremely polyphyletic (encompassing distantly-related species that do not form a natural group). [14] Before the advent of inexpensive molecular methods, yeasts that were isolated from infected patients were often called Candida without clear evidence of relationship to other Candida species. For example, Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, and Candida lusitaniae are clearly misclassified [14] and will be placed in other genera once phylogenetic reorganization is complete (for example, see Khunnamwong et al. 2015). [15]

Some species of Candida use a non-standard genetic code in the translation of their nuclear genes into the amino acid sequences of polypeptides. [16] The difference in the genetic code between species possessing this alternative code is that the codon CUG (normally encoding the amino acid leucine) is translated by the yeast as a different amino acid, serine. The alternative translation of the CUG codon in these species is due to a novel nucleic acid sequence in the serine-tRNA (ser-tRNACAG), which has a guanosine located at position 33, 5' to the anticodon. In all other tRNAs, this position is normally occupied by a pyrimidine (often uridine). This genetic code change is the only such known alteration in cytoplasmic mRNA, in both the prokaryotes, and the eukaryotes, involving the reassignment of a sense codon. [17] This novel genetic code may be a mechanism for more rapid adaptation to the organism's environment, as well as playing an important role in the evolution of the genus Candida by creating genetic barriers that encouraged speciation. [17]

Candida are almost universal in low numbers on healthy adult skin [13] and C. albicans is part of the normal flora of the mucous membranes of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and female genital tracts. The dryness of skin compared to other tissues prevents the growth of the fungus, but damaged skin or skin in intertriginous regions is more amenable to rapid growth. [18]

Overgrowth of several species, including C. albicans, can cause infections ranging from superficial, such as oropharyngeal candidiasis (thrush) or vulvovaginal candidiasis (vaginal candidiasis) and subpreputial candidiasis which may cause balanitis to systemic, such as fungemia and invasive candidiasis. Oral candidiasis is common in elderly denture-wearers. [19] In otherwise healthy individuals, these superficial infections can be cured with topical or systemic antifungal medications [20] (commonly over-the-counter antifungal treatments like miconazole or clotrimazole). In debilitated or immunocompromised patients, or if introduced intravenously (into the bloodstream), candidiasis may become a systemic disease producing abscesses, thrombophlebitis, endocarditis, or infections of the eyes or other organs. [7] [13] Typically, relatively severe neutropenia (low neutrophils) is a prerequisite for Candida to pass through the defenses of the skin and cause disease in deeper tissues in such cases, mechanical disruption of the infected skin sites is typically a factor in the fungal invasion of the deeper tissues. [18] The most common way to treat invasive candida infections is with the use of amphotericin or fluconazole other methods would include surgery. [21]

C. albicans has been used in combination with carbon nanotubes (CNT) to produce stable electrically-conductive bio-nano-composite tissue materials that have been used as temperature-sensing elements. [22]

Among Candida species, C. albicans, which is a normal constituent of the human flora, a commensal of the skin and the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, is responsible for the majority of Candida bloodstream infections (candidemia). [23] Yet, there is an increasing incidence of infections caused by C. glabrata and C. rugosa, which could be because they are frequently less susceptible to the currently used azole-group of antifungals. [24] Other medically important species include C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. dubliniensis. [7] and the more recent upcoming pathogen C. auris. [25]

Other Candida species, such as C. oleophila, have been used as biological control agents in fruit. [26]


1.4 Anatomical Terminology

Anatomists and health care providers use terminology that can be bewildering to the uninitiated however, the purpose of this language is not to confuse, but rather to increase precision and reduce medical errors. For example, is a scar “above the wrist” located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand? Or is it at the base of the hand? Is it on the palm-side or back-side? By using precise anatomical terminology, we eliminate ambiguity. For example, you might say a scar “on the anterior antebrachium 3 inches proximal to the carpus”. Anatomical terms are derived from ancient Greek and Latin words. Because these languages are no longer used in everyday conversation, the meaning of their words do not change.

Anatomical terms are made up of roots, prefixes, and suffixes. The root of a term often refers to an organ, tissue, or condition, whereas the prefix or suffix often describes the root. For example, in the disorder hypertension, the prefix “hyper-” means “high” or “over,” and the root word “tension” refers to pressure, so the word “hypertension” refers to abnormally high blood pressure.

Anatomical Position

To further increase precision, anatomists standardize the way in which they view the body. Just as maps are normally oriented with north at the top, the standard body “map,” or anatomical position, is that of the body standing upright, with the feet at shoulder width and parallel, toes forward. The upper limbs are held out to each side, and the palms of the hands face forward as illustrated in Figure 1.4.1. Using this standard position reduces confusion. It does not matter how the body being described is oriented, the terms are used as if it is in anatomical position. For example, a scar in the “anterior (front) carpal (wrist) region” would be present on the palm side of the wrist. The term “anterior” would be used even if the hand were palm down on a table.

Figure 1.4.1 – Regions of the Human Body: The human body is shown in anatomical position in an (a) anterior view and a (b) posterior view. The regions of the body are labeled in boldface.

A body that is lying down is described as either prone or supine. Prone describes a face-down orientation, and supine describes a face up orientation. These terms are sometimes used in describing the position of the body during specific physical examinations or surgical procedures.

Regional Terms

The human body’s numerous regions have specific terms to help increase precision (see Figure 1.4.1). Notice that the term “brachium” or “arm” is reserved for the “upper arm” and “antebrachium” or “forearm” is used rather than “lower arm.” Similarly, “femur” or “thigh” is correct, and “leg” or “crus” is reserved for the portion of the lower limb between the knee and the ankle. You will be able to describe the body’s regions using the terms from the figure.

Directional Terms

Certain directional anatomical terms appear throughout this and any other anatomy textbook (Figure 1.4.2). These terms are essential for describing the relative locations of different body structures. For instance, an anatomist might describe one band of tissue as “inferior to” another or a physician might describe a tumor as “superficial to” a deeper body structure. Commit these terms to memory to avoid confusion when you are studying or describing the locations of particular body parts.

  • Anterior (or ventral) describes the front or direction toward the front of the body. The toes are anterior to the foot.
  • Posterior (or dorsal) describes the back or direction toward the back of the body. The popliteus is posterior to the patella.
  • Superior (or cranial) describes a position above or higher than another part of the body proper. The orbits are superior to the oris.
  • Inferior (or caudal) describes a position below or lower than another part of the body proper near or toward the tail (in humans, the coccyx, or lowest part of the spinal column). The pelvis is inferior to the abdomen.
  • Lateral describes the side or direction toward the side of the body. The thumb (pollex) is lateral to the digits.
  • Medial describes the middle or direction toward the middle of the body. The hallux is the medial toe.
  • Proximal describes a position in a limb that is nearer to the point of attachment or the trunk of the body. The brachium is proximal to the antebrachium.
  • Distal describes a position in a limb that is farther from the point of attachment or the trunk of the body. The crus is distal to the femur.
  • Superficial describes a position closer to the surface of the body. The skin is superficial to the bones.
  • Deep describes a position farther from the surface of the body. The brain is deep to the skull.

Body Planes

A section is a two-dimensional surface of a three-dimensional structure that has been cut. Modern medical imaging devices enable clinicians to obtain “virtual sections” of living bodies. We call these scans. Body sections and scans can be correctly interpreted, only if the viewer understands the plane along which the section was made. A plane is an imaginary, two-dimensional surface that passes through the body. There are three planes commonly referred to in anatomy and medicine, as illustrated in Figure 1.4.3.

  • The sagittal plane divides the body or an organ vertically into right and left sides. If this vertical plane runs directly down the middle of the body, it is called the midsagittal or median plane. If it divides the body into unequal right and left sides, it is called a parasagittal plane or less commonly a longitudinal section.
  • The frontal plane divides the body or an organ into an anterior (front) portion and a posterior (rear) portion. The frontal plane is often referred to as a coronal plane. (“Corona” is Latin for “crown.”)
  • The transverse (or horizontal) plane divides the body or organ horizontally into upper and lower portions. Transverse planes produce images referred to as cross sections.

Body Cavities

The body maintains its internal organization by means of membranes, sheaths, and other structures that separate compartments. The main cavities of the body include the cranial, thoracic and abdominopelvic (also known as the peritoneal) cavities. The cranial bones create the cranial cavity where the brain sits. The thoracic cavity is enclosed by the rib cage and contains the lungs and the heart, which is located in the mediastinum. The diaphragm forms the floor of the thoracic cavity and separates it from the more inferior abdominopelvic/peritoneal cavity. The abdominopelvic/peritoneal cavity is the largest cavity in the body. Although no membrane physically divides the abdominopelvic cavity, it can be useful to distinguish between the abdominal cavity, (the division that houses the digestive organs), and the pelvic cavity, (the division that houses the organs of reproduction).

Abdominal Regions and Quadrants

To promote clear communication, for instance, about the location of a patient’s abdominal pain or a suspicious mass, health care providers typically divide up the cavity into either nine regions or four quadrants (Figure 1.4.4).

Figure 1.4.4 – Regions and Quadrants of the Peritoneal Cavity: There are (a) nine abdominal regions and (b) four abdominal quadrants in the peritoneal cavity.

The more detailed regional approach subdivides the cavity with one horizontal line immediately inferior to the ribs and one immediately superior to the pelvis, and two vertical lines drawn as if dropped from the midpoint of each clavicle (collarbone). There are nine resulting regions. The simpler quadrants approach, which is more commonly used in medicine, subdivides the cavity with one horizontal and one vertical line that intersect at the patient’s umbilicus (navel).

Chapter Review

Ancient Greek and Latin words are used to build anatomical terms. A standard reference position for mapping the body’s structures is the normal anatomical position. Regions of the body are identified using terms such as “occipital” that are more precise than common words and phrases such as “the back of the head.” Directional terms such as anterior and posterior are essential for accurately describing the relative locations of body structures. Images of the body’s interior commonly align along one of three planes: the sagittal, frontal, or transverse.


Watch the video: Αποκατάσταση ρήξης χιαστού. Ασκήσεις Ενδυνάμωσης (May 2022).