I have 6 vials of Pyrocystis lunula that I would like to grow. What would be a more suitable container, a tank or a clear jar? Also, I would like to know what kind of nutrient solution to use. Is it possible to get them to reproduce at a rate that eventually there can be a whole tank full of them?
I have no experience with that particular species but dinoflagellates are often slow growing, very tricky to get to high densities and hard to maintain for a long time without proper experience and lab conditions.
If you still want to have a go I would recommend the following. Growth conditions are rather similar for most dinoflagellates: use a rotary shaker (gentle rotation) in a 12:12 day night regime, don't dilute to hard when subculturing and use standard F2 medium (see link for recipe). If you cannot get hold of seawater you can use saltwater aquarium salts such as Instant Ocean.
Most hate temperature changes so best to keep them at 18-21C
How do I efficiently grow bioluminescent algae? - Biology
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Creating a New Kind of Night Light: Glow-in-the-Dark Trees
San Francisco-based entrepreneur Antony Evans has come up with a radical idea for curbing power usage: “What if we use trees to light our streets instead of electric street lamps?”
Evans and his colleagues, biologists Omri Amirav-Drory and Kyle Taylor, want to create plants that literally glow. Evans was inspired by transgenic organisms, plants or animals with genes of other species in their own DNA, which have been used to fill many human needs. A gene from the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis is routinely introduced to corn and cotton, for instance, to make the crops insect-resistant. In one method called “pharming,” scientists have inserted human genes into plants and animals so that these hosts can produce proteins for pharmaceuticals. Others have added a gene from the crystal jelly responsible for creating green fluorescent protein to animals such as cats and pigs this way, they can determine if a disease has been transmitted from one generation to another, just by seeing if the offspring glows in the dark.
This spring, Evans’ team posted a video to Kickstarter, explaining how they plan to insert genes from bioluminescent bacteria into a species of flora as a first step to creating glowing trees. To feed viewers’ imaginations, the video included an image of Pandora, the luminous, mid-22nd century setting from the movie Avatar. In a raucously successful 46-day campaign the group raised nearly $500,000 to fund the effort. I spoke with Evans about his project.
Scientists genetically engineered the very first glow-in-the-dark plant in the 1980s, a tobacco plant with a firefly gene inserted into it. Historically, what has been the purpose of doing this?
The first time, I think, was just a demonstration project. But scientists have used it since to study things like root growth. They really use it for basic research purposes.
Traditionally, what they’ve done is insert the gene for luciferase [an enzyme from a luminescent organism] along with a promoter [a region at the beginning of a gene that tells a cell to start transcription, the first step to producing a protein] and then add the luciferin [a chemical that produces light when oxidized] manually. They have even had these glowing plants up on the International Space Station, so it is a pretty well established technique.
For your glowing plant project, you have chosen to use a flowering species called Arabidopsis thaliana. Why this plant?
We chose this plant because it has been extremely well studied by the academic community. It is the fruit fly of plant biology. The reason it has been studied so much is because it has the shortest genome of any [flowering] plant.
What gene are you adding to create the glow?
We are using genes from Vibrio fischeri. It is marine bacteria.
How is this done? Can you take me through the process of creating a glowing plant?
We start with software called Genome Compiler. Genome Compiler allows us to search for gene sequences and then modify those gene sequences in a nice graphical user interface. We use that software to look up the Vibrio fischeri genes, and then we do something called code and optimization, which basically adjusts the sequences so that they [work] in plants instead of in bacteria. We then synthesize the DNA. There is a “print” button, and we “print” that DNA. That emails the file to a company, who makes the DNA for us. They FedEx that back to us, and then we do two things.
First, we insert the DNA into some bacteria called agrobacterium. That bacterium is very clever, it has figured out how to do genetic engineering on its own. [The bacterium] inserts the DNA into the female gametes of the plant. We can grow the seeds that come from those flowers, and we’ll have the DNA that we designed on the computer in the plant. The second thing we are doing is using a gene gun, which is a piece of equipment that fires the DNA at high velocity into the cells of the plant. Some of those cells will absorb the DNA and start to express it.
You are doing your end of the work at BioCurious, a community bio lab in Sunnyville, California, in Silicon Valley. But how DIY is this? Is this something that a garage tinkerer can manage?
As part of the Kickstarter campaign, we have a kit, which you can use to make one of these plants. The tough part is designing the sequences, but once someone has figured them out, you can follow the recipe.
All told, you had 8,433 Kickstarter backers pledge $484,013. Did this reaction surprise you?
We were targeting $65,000, so it is great that we got so much. With Kickstarter, you never know. We knew we had something interesting, because everyone wanted to talk about it. But, we didn’t know it would get this big.
How realistic is it to think that one day we could have glow-in-the-dark trees lining streets instead of streetlights?
We do think it should be viable, but it is definitely a long-term goal. The big challenge with the trees is that trees take a long time to grow. Doing experiments on trees and testing different promoters will take a long time. We really need one of a few different technologies to come out. One would be a better simulation technology, so that we could simulate the gene sequences on a computer. Two would be a bio printer or something similar, so that we could print a leaf and test realistically the sequences on the leaf [instead of having to wait for a whole tree to grow]. Or, third would be some way of doing gene therapy on trees and adjusting them in situ and using that to change their DNA. We do need some developments in one of those before we will be able to really take on big trees.
In preliminary calculations, you figure that a glowing tree that covers about 1,000 square feet would cast as much light as a streetlight.
It will be a very different type of lighting effect. If you think about the way that the day is lit, the light comes from the whole sky it doesn’t just come from a point, whereas light bulbs come from a point. Our lighting will be much more diffused and we think much more beautiful.
What are your sights set on now?
We are focused on executing on the things that we promised our Kickstarter backers. So, we are doing the work, getting the lab set up, ordering the DNA and starting to transform the [Arabidopsis] plants.
You and your colleagues promised to send each supporter, of a certain donation level, a glowing plant. What can people expect? How strong will the light be and how long lasting?
The light will be on at night as long as the plant is alive, but it won’t be super bright. We are aiming for something like glow-in-the-dark paint. You need to be in a dark room, and then you can see it dimly glowing. From there, we will work on optimizing and boosting the light output.
In the campaign video, you say, “the glowing plant is a symbol of the future.” What does this future look like to you?
The future we are referring to there is a synthetic biology future. We think that this kind of technology is going to become democratized it will be accessible to many people. I’d like to see a future where teenagers and amateurs are genetically engineering things at home or in DIY bio labs. We want to represent that future, to tell people that it’s coming and to start a discussion around this technology—what it means and what it means for us.
This technology is rapidly being adopted. It is going to be very transformational, and I think that it’s time that people sort of became aware of it and the potential of it, to take an interest in it. There are going to be some fantastic opportunities in it, so if people look at the project and think “I’d like to do that,” I think the answer is “You can.” Just go to your local DIY bio lab and start playing around, start learning.
Are there other transgenic organisms being created that you find promising?
There are tons of people working on stuff, tons and tons and tons. If you look at the iGEM [International Genetically Engineered Machine] Foundation projects, you can see some of the breadth and variety of things that are being done. The spider silk is cool. I think the guys working on new versions of meat are cool. There is some interesting stuff happening with algae in the bio lab down in South Bay [San Francisco], BioCurious. Engineering algae so that we can use it for energy production—I think there is a lot of work to be done on that, but it’s very promising.
Are there any projects that worry you?
Not for now. But, I think some scary stuff will happen eventually.
Some people have expressed concern with you distributing glowing plants and releasing synthetic plants into the wild. What do you have to say to those who fear this?
People have been genetically engineering plants for many decades now. We are just following in the footsteps of all of the other plants that have already been released in the last 20 years. We don’t think we are doing anything radically different. What is different about this project is how it’s been funded and that the work is taking place in a DIY bio lab rather than in a professional research institution.
Algae project is “magic” photosynthetic organism. The latest year is being used as the core of various types of circular economy models. Economies that are relating to wastewater treatment and carbon emissions.
In the model suggested from http://algaesystems.com/ wastewater go to strong plastic bugs in an offshore plantation for the cultivation of algae. Then sunlight and CO2, green algae and associated microbes rapidly convert nutrients and organic carbon from wastewater into renewable biomass. Out of cultivated algae that grow rapidly (sucking CO2 from the atmosphere on the same time) you can produce biofuel, fertilizers and bioenergy.
Many species of microalgae have high lipid contents that can readily extracted and converted to biodiesel. Similarly, their high content of fermentable sugars makes them suitable for bio-ethanol production.
Microalgae can therefore generate a whole suite of bioenergy products:
- Ethanol Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO)
- Aviation fuel
- Hydrocracking to traditional transport fuels
Over the years several solutions has been presented with algae for example:
1. Algae Biofuels for Airlines that will replace kerosene
2. In the project AlgaTec2 a system efficient to treat olive washing water (WW) was introduced that could remove the pollution load, producing water of drinking quality that could be reused in the process (See http://algatec2.eu/ )
3. The ability of algae to sucking CO2 was utilized in cement production. Cement production is a dirty process. However, there are two examples in Sweden and in Canada where they make a carbon free cement, driving the CO2 into algae cultivation in closed-loop process. Producing either biofuel or additives for chicken and fish food.
4. Another tremendous ability of algae is that it can replace petroleum plastics with biodegradable bio-plastics. Solaplast, harnesses the potential of algae to make bio-plastics for the replacement of traditional petroleum-based plastics and for the reduction of biodegradable plastic costs. http://algix.com/from-plastic-pollution-to-an-algae-solution/
5. Microalgae are not only being used in the plastic industry but they are also being used in the cosmetics Various Companies are coming up with products that use Microalgae to treat various skin conditions and problems. Different types of skin whitening creams and anti-aging creams can be made using Microalgae as their base ingredient. Currently, Microalgae are being used in moisturizing creams but they can also be used for treating other skin problems such as pigmentation.
6. Algae in Nutrional sector: another area in which Microalgae is being used is in the global food market (drinks, yogurts, supplements, etc.). Microalgae based foods and supplements are gaining popularity. Microalgae like chlorella and spirulina are already being used as dietary supplements in their pure forms. That is why Japan is now the biggest consumer of these products. Studies have shown that Microalgae spirulina has over 30 healthy nutrients that are beneficial for the body. 100 grams of spirulina can yield about 50-80 grams of vegetable proteins. Apart from these proteins, spirulina also provides beneficial vitamins and minerals such as calcium, magnesium and beta carotenes.
7. Algae’s natural bioluminescence Designer Gyula Bodonyi has created the Algaebulb a light bulb in which the algae within fuels an LED via the oxygen it emits as it grows. Since algae thrive on carbon dioxide, the bulb also helps to lessen greenhouse gases, and cleans the air in its immediate vicinity by sucking it in through an air outlet in the polycarbonate shell. Although the teardrop-shaped bulb is quite small, its potential impact is enormous: an extraordinary amount of energy could be saved if everyone in North America installed just a few of these in their homes. http://inhabitat.com/gyula-bodonyis-algae-powered-led-is-truly-a-green-light-bulb/
8. A team of researchers and designers from Cambridge University are working on the development of bio-photovolaic (BPV) devices fueled by moss and algae. When those tiny, fast-growing plants photosynthesize, they create a startling amount of energy that energy can be extracted to power photovoltaic panels, which in turn can be used to power anything. Since algae regenerates so very quickly, this kind of technology could be a brilliant alternative to silicon-based solar panels, which are both resource-heavy to develop, and expensive to create. http://inhabitat.com/moss-table-by-biophotovoltaics-generates-electricity-through-photosynthesis/
9. In Hamburg, Germany, an Algae-powered building was designed by Splitterwerk Architects. Its entire facade is covered in shutters filled with bio-reactive micro-algae, which create heat that’s harvested and used to power the structure. It’s a great source of clean, renewable energy, and the louvers that house the living algae not only encourage the plants within to flourish—they also provide shade for the building’s interior… which in turn reduces the need for air conditioning or ceiling fans
It can be concluded that in the future algae can be the vital part of a circular economy based model, that will utilize wastewater and the carbon emissions of the cities and its industries for the production of a series of products in a greener, faster, cheaper manner.
A Lamp Whose Light Comes From Bioluminescent Bacteria
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Before Teresa van Dongen studied design, she studied biology. Which explains a lot about how and why her most recent project, the Ambio light, came to be. The Ambio, an elegant brass lighting fixture, doesn’t use typical incandescent bulbs. Instead its light source is bioluminescent bacteria found on octopus tentacles. When exposed to oxygen, these micro-organisms emit a soft blue hue that glows like an organic nightlight.
The Dutch designer created the Ambio for her graduation project at Eindhoven’s Design Academy. It began as an investigation into how we might be able to use new forms of energy to create lighting. Van Dongen got in touch with some of her old biology professors and started experimenting with bioluminescent algae, but it turned out that algae is able to only briefly spark with light every 30 minutes rather than emitting a long-lasting illumination. Photobacterium bacteria, on the other hand, is capable of glowing for long periods of time so long as it’s exposed to oxygen.
Unlike most pendants, the Ambio couldn’t be static. Van Dongen explains that in order to make the bacteria glow consistently she had to build motion into her lamp. It also couldn’t rely on constant human contact to power that motion---not only would that be impractical, it would totally erase its magic. She decided to experiment with making a perpetuum mobile and landed on the idea of using two weights of varying heft. When pushed, the round brass weight throws the lamp out of balance, swishing the artificial seawater and the bacteria back and forth for up to 20 minutes.
Right now, the bacteria in the lamp can only live for a few days. She’s working with biologists to extend its lifespan and brightness. Though she says to make the light bright enough to read a book by they’ll likely have to augment bacteria synthetically.
In its current form, van Dongen compares the Ambio to a needy pet. Ideally, she’d like it to be more like a plant, something that you’d feed every few days to ensure it stays alive. Not surprisingly, Van Dongen has fielded quite a few requests from people wanting their own Ambio. Unfortunately, it takes more than just flipping the switch “First I ask them if they are biotechnicians,” she says. “And if they are, then I tell them they can have one.”
The role of bioluminescence in behaviour
Light production appears to be associated with the protection and survival of a species. That is quite clear in certain squids, who secrete a luminous cloud to confuse an enemy and make an escape, and in many deep-sea fishes who dangle luminous lures to attract prey or who show light organs to disguise their form from enemies, frighten predators, or simply light the way in the darkness of the ocean deeps. The survival value of bioluminescence is indisputable for many organisms who use their flashes as species-recognition and mating signals.
In Photinus pyralis, a common North American firefly, the male flashes spontaneously while in flight, emitting on average a 0.3-second flash every 5.5 seconds if the temperature is 25 °C (77 °F). The females watch from the ground and wait for a male to flash. Upon seeing a flash, a female flashes a response after an interval of about 2 seconds. It is that response that attracts the male. The female is unable to identify a male by his flashing. Thus, it is the male that recognizes the correct signal—i.e., interval between flashes—and seeks out the female. The interval between the male’s signal and the female’s response, therefore, is crucial. Similar specific recognition codes are used by many species of fireflies. Other fireflies possibly rely on colour differences in the light signals between sexes.
Lantern fishes and hatchetfishes, along with many other deep-sea organisms, possess distinct arrangements of light organs on the body that may serve as species- and sex-recognition patterns. The light organs, or photophores, of many deep-sea fishes are placed on the ventral and lateral surfaces of the body, and the light is emitted downward and outward. Such an arrangement is believed to allow the light of the photophores to be used to match the intensity of sunlight penetrating from above, thus concealing the fish’s own shadow from a predator below. Some lantern fishes possess, in addition, a large nasal organ others have a patch of luminous tissue in the tail region. In deep-sea anglerfishes, the first dorsal spine is turned forward into an elongated rod, from the end of which dangles a luminous organ. When an unsuspecting prey approaches the luminous lure, it is engulfed in the fish’s large jaw.
Bioluminescence and humans
Throughout history, humans have devised ingenious ways of using bioluminescence to their advantage. Glowing fungi have been used by tribes to light the way through dense jungles, for example, while fireflies were used by miners as an early safety lamp. Perhaps inspired by these applications, researchers are now again turning to bioluminescence as a potential form of green energy. In the not so distant future, our traditional street lamps may be replaced by glowing trees and buildings.
Today, bioluminescence from Aliivibrio fischeri is used to monitor water toxicity. When exposed to pollutants, light output from the bacterial culture decreases, signalling the possible presence of a contaminant.
Bioluminescence has even played a part in warfare. Bioluminescent organisms aided in the sinking of the last German U-boat during World War One, in November 1918. The submarine is reported to have sailed through a bioluminescent bloom, leaving a glowing wake which was tracked by the allies.
It has had a protective role too. In the aftermath of one of the bloodiest battles of the American Civil War, at Shiloh, the wounds of some of the injured soldiers began to glow. These glowing wounds healed more quickly and cleanly, and the phenomenon became known as “Angel’s Glow”. The glow was probably produced by Photorhabdus luminescens, a soil-dwelling bacterium which releases antimicrobial compounds and so protected the soldiers from infection.
It is perhaps the medical applications of bioluminescence that have attracted the most excitement. In 2008, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded for the discovery and development of green fluorescent protein (GFP). GFP is found naturally in the crystal jellyfish Aequorea victoria, which, unlike the bioluminescence mechanism described so far, is fluorescent. This means that the protein needs to be excited by blue light before emitting its characteristic green light. Since its discovery, GFP has been genetically inserted into various cell types and even animals to shed light on important aspects of cell biology and disease dynamics.
The evolutionary process that culminated in bioluminescence may have taken million of years, but its scientific applications continue to revolutionise our modern world. Remember that, the next time you see the sea sparkle.
Pyrocystis sp. Bioluminescence can be observed in this mixture of marine dinoflagellates. These dinoflagellates begin to glow when agitated and are common in tropical waters. Their bioluminescence is an unusual defense mechanism and provides a great opportunity to discuss animal adaptations.
Each unialgal culture contains approximately 100 mL of material. This culture requires a high light level of 200 to 400 foot-candles of fluorescent light 18 to 24" from the culture in 12-hr cycles. Optimal medium: Bioluminescent Dinoflagellate (item #153757). Optimum growth temperature: 22° C.
Note: Bioluminescent dinoflagellates may not bioluminesce upon arrival they may need a week or more to recover bioluminescent ability after being shipped. See "Carolina® CareSheet: Bioluminescent Dinoflagellates" (on the Resources tab) for more information.
- This item contains living or perishable material and ships via 2nd Day or Overnight delivery to arrive on a date you specify during Checkout. To ensure freshness during shipping, a Living Materials Fee may apply to orders containing these items.
Researchers obtain more efficient red bioluminescence than those available commercially
Developed in collaboration with Japanese researchers it produces brighter and longer-lasting far red light. The innovation can be used to image cells and tissues for diagnosis and biomedical research. Credit: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Researchers at the Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, have developed a novel far red light-emitting luciferin-luciferase system that is more efficient than those available commercially. An article on the subject is published in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences.
The study was supported by São Paulo Research Foundation—FAPESP via the Thematic Project "Arthropod bioluminescence: biological diversity in Brazilian biomes, biochemical origin, structural/functional evolution of luciferases, molecular differentiation of lanterns, biotechnological, environmental and educational applications," for which the principal investigator is Vadim Viviani, a biochemist and professor at UFSCar.
"We obtained a novel luciferin-luciferase system that produces far red light at the wavelength of 650 nanometers and emits the brightest bioluminescence ever reported in this part of the spectrum. It's a highly promising result for bioluminescence imaging of biological and pathological processes in mammalian tissues," Viviani said.
Luciferases are enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of luciferins, compounds present in some animals, algae and fungi. The oxidation reaction is responsible for the phenomenon of bioluminescence, which consists of the emission of light at wavelengths ranging from blue to red.
The firefly's luciferin-luciferase system is widely used to help produce images of cell cultures and live animal models. It helps physicians monitor metastasis, for example, and see how tumors respond to treatment. It is also used to follow the viral infection process and the effects of candidate drugs on viruses, including the novel coronavirus.
"Red bioluminescence is preferred when imaging biological or pathological processes in mammalian tissues because hemoglobin, myoglobin and melanin absorb little long-wavelength light. Detection is best of all in the far red and near-infrared bands, but bioluminescent systems that naturally emit far red light don't exist," Viviani said.
"Some genetically modified forms of luciferase and synthetic analogs of natural luciferins are produced commercially. In conjunction, they produce light at wavelengths as long as 700 nanometers, but the light produced by these artificial systems is generally much weaker and more short-lived than light from natural bioluminescent systems."
Viviani and collaborators used genetic engineering to modify luciferase from the Railroad worm Phrixothrix hirtus, the only luciferase that naturally emits red light, cloned by Viviani two decades ago. This they combined with luciferin analogs synthesized by colleagues at the University of Electro-Communications in Tokyo, Japan. The result was a much more efficient far red luciferin-luciferase system.
"Our best combination produces far red at 650 nanometers, three times brighter than natural luciferin and luciferase, and roughly 1,000 times brighter than the same luciferase with a commercial analog," Viviani said.
"Besides the long wavelength and intense brightness, our combination has better thermal stability and cell membrane penetrability. Above all, it produces more lasting continuous bioluminescence, taking at least an hour to decay and significantly facilitating the real-time imaging of biological and pathological processes."
Making Algal Biofuel Production More Efficient, Less Expensive
Researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed an innovative process that turns algae into bio-crude in less than 60 minutes. Watch the video to see how the process works.
Tiny algae can play a big role in tackling America's energy challenges. Algae, small organisms that grow quickly and take carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere, can potentially serve as a great home-grown source of renewable, sustainable fuel for our nation’s transportation fleet.
Recent scientific breakthroughs, funded by the Energy Department’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO), have resulted in a number of advancements that are helping to make algal biofuel more cost competitive and widely available. These include:
- Fast algae-to-bio-crude oil process reduces production costs –The Energy Department’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is receiving national recognition for developing a process to turn algae into bio-crude oil in just minutes, potentially creating a substitute for the natural processes that produced fossil fuels over millions of years. Watch this video to learn more about the process.
- Discovery in algae cell biology overcomes key challenge to algal biofuels – Researchers at the Scripps Institute of Oceanography made a significant breakthrough in the metabolic engineering of algae to improve yield of lipids (the energy-storing fat molecules that can be used in biofuel production). Learn more about how metabolic engineering can increase productivity of algae and reduce production costs.
In addition to the advancements listed above, a number of algal biofuel companies are leveraging Energy Department cooperative agreements to acquire significant private investments, form strategic partnerships, and demonstrate pre-commercial production levels of algal biofuels. A few recent examples include:
- BETO-supported industrial biotechnology company exceeds algae biofuel production target – Algenol began operating its pilot-scale integrated biorefinery, which demonstrates the commercial viability of its two-step fuel production technology. Algenol has an algae strain that can produce ethanol directly, and the system can then convert remaining biomass into hydrocarbon fuels such as biodiesel, gasoline, and jet fuel. The biorefinery has helped Algenol exceed its milestone of 9,000 gallons of ethanol per acre per year at peak productivity, with an additional 1,100 gallons per acre per year of hydrocarbon fuels. Algenol expects to expand their operations to full commercial scale by the end of this year.
- Sapphire Energy moves algae oil production closer towards commercial scale – Sapphire Energy, a producer of algae-based “green crude” oil and recent recipient of DOE funding, entered into contract agreements with two major oil and gas companies—Phillips 66 and Tesoro. Phillips 66, an integrated energy manufacturing and logistics company, partnered with Sapphire to test and upgrade Sapphire’s “Green Crude” to on-spec diesel—meaning it could be dropped into any existing diesel fuel tank and delivered using current infrastructure. Tesoro, an independent refiner and marketer of petroleum products, entered into a commercial purchase agreement with Sapphire for its Green Crude oil. Sapphire is expected to produce the nation’s first algae oil on a commercial scale by 2015.
- Energy Department awards funding for integrated R&D on algal biology and downstream processing – During BETO’s Biomass 2013 conference, Secretary Moniz announced up to $16.5 million in funding for new algae biofuels projects. Hawaii Bioenergy, Sapphire Energy, New Mexico State University, and California Polytechnic State University all received funding to demonstrate algal biofuel intermediate yields of greater than 2,500 gallons per acre by 2018.
- New Energy Department awards for low-cost algae production – Iowa-based BioProcess Algae LLC recently received $6.4 million from the Energy Department to evaluate an innovative algal growth platform to develop advanced biofuels for U.S. military jets and ships.
- Collaborative outdoor algae production testing facilitiesup and running – The Arizona State University-led Algae Testbed Public-Private Partnership (ATP 3 ) and the University of Arizona Regional Algae Feedstock Testbed (RAFT) partnership recently kicked off their project work to help accelerate the research and development of algae-based technologies. Both partnerships manage algal biofuel research and development facilities across the United States and serve as learning environments for the next generation of scientists, engineers, and business leaders. Learn more about ATP 3 and RAFT.
These projects, and the public-private partnerships supporting them, are helping our nation become less dependent on foreign oil, improving our energy security, and protecting our natural resources.
Watch the video: Πώς να μη σε χειραγωγούν. Agnes Alice Mariakaki (January 2022).