Why do men have nipples?

Why do men have nipples?

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I'd be tempted to call nipples in men vestigial, but that suggests they have no modern function. They do have a function, of course, but only in women. So why do men (and all male mammals) have them?

The two key concepts here are:

  1. sex-specific selection, and the fact that
  2. males and females share the majority of genes

1) sex-specific selection

Obviously, any population where females lacked nipples would be in trouble. Men, on the other hand, have no evolutionary need for them, but they don't pay much either - there is no strong selection against men with nipples. So at first sight, it seems that nipples are positively selected in females while seem to be quite neutral in males.

2) Males and females share the majority of genes

If you consider two separate species where the two species undergo different selection pressures, you will just see one species evolve toward one optimum while the other one will independently evolve toward the other optima.

However, males and females are not independent entities. The vast majority of our genes can be found in one sex as well as in the other sex. In other words, most male phenotypes do not evolve independently of female phenotypes. As a result of this interdependence, you can end up with the trait that is selected in one sex present in the other sex.

Evolutionary equilibrium

This is all much more rigorously defined in terms of selection coefficients and evolutionary pressure. Without going into the math, the questions of who has the highest selection coefficient and How differential is gene expression for this trait are important questions to predict the equilibrium trait value in both sexes.

Lack of a strong selection pressure

Finally, any trait that is seemingly not-useful has to have a significant disadvantage on the fitness of the organism to be selected out (Why do some bad traits evolve, and good ones don't?). Even if a trait is useless for both males and females it may persist. The case of females needing the trait just makes its elimination in males even more difficult, as explained above. However, in some mammalian species, the males do lack the nipples (Evolutionarily, why do male rats and horses lack nipples?).

I believe it is for this reason: the female body plan is the default one. Males are a variation upon that, in humans at least. Nipples are part of the basic body plan. For a man to not have them, he would need to actively evolve something that would prevent nipples from developing. There is no selective pressure for the development of such a thing, so it hasn't happened. Keep in mind that the code for the general body plan is shared between males and females. The Y chromosome modifies the development of that body plan so the person becomes male.

No one has mentioned the Neutral Theory of Evolution, which explains mutations that are not necessarily motivated by increased "fitness".

Similarly, (and more to the point for this question) there is no selective pressure with regards to men's nipples.

Men have nipples because they find a purpose on women, but for men, there is no reason to not have them. From an evolutionary standpoint, it is simpler for men to have them. The more complex situation (women have nipples but men do not) would most likely only occur if there was some selective pressure for men to not have nipples.

Sorry to spoil the fun here, but male nipples are not completely useless. With stimulation and hormones, they can be used to make milk. I don't have a great peer reviewed source for this, because it is sort of common knowledge. I heard about it at a Le Leche Leage meeting when my son was small.

Here's another article

Why Do Men Have Nipples? Reasons Behind the Nipple Mystery

Have you ever asked yourself, why do men have nipples? When you really think about it, male nipples do not serve an actual function, as opposed to female nipples, which produce milk for a mother’s offspring. In regard to male vs. female sexuality, men and women have different sexual parts and organs, so why would both men and women have nipples?

Let’s start with simple genetics. A baby receives a copy of every gene from the father and a copy of every gene from the mother. Thus, if parents have a boy, he has both sets of his parents' genes.

However, males and females can have different traits as well. Biology Professor Andrew M. Simons of Carleton University provides the example of birds. Female and male birds have different colors and plumage therefore, we can tell the difference between a male or female bird (Scientific American).

This poses the question: If traits are inherited from both the mother and the father, why should there be such a difference between a male and female?

A long time ago, when you were an embryo …

Very early in development, embryos of both sexes have primitive structures that can develop into either male or female reproductive organs (or rarely into a bit of both).

Several genes determine whether the baby ends up with either male or female reproductive organs. A gene called SRY (sex-determining region Y) on the short arm of the Y chromosome is considered the master gene.

This is activated when the embryo is around seven weeks old. When activated, it eventually leads to the development of male reproductive organs and the disappearance of the primitive female reproductive duct.

As females don’t have a Y chromosome, the primitive female reproductive duct continues to develop into female reproductive organs while the primitive male reproductive duct disappears.

But breasts and nipples start to form before the SRY gene has been activated, between weeks four and six. This is when two ridges called mammary crests or milk lines extend between the primitive armpit and the groin.

So, later in male development, even as most of the mammary crest disappears, the cells around the chest that form primitive nipples and areola smooth muscle remain. These remaining cells go on to form the final breasts and nipples.

At around seven weeks, a critical gene is activated that puts embryos on the path to being male or female. But by then, critical cells that go on to become breasts and nipples have already developed. from

Why Do Men Have Nipples?

If there were an all-knowing Creator, why would He design men with a structure for which they have no use? Dr. Tommy Mitchell, AiG-U.S., explains why males have nipples.

My son asked me, “Why do men have nipples?” I did not have a good answer, other than they were made in the image of God. I've searched your website because I thought I had read about it before, but cannot find the article. Can you please help me answer this question for my son, who is struggling with the “fiery darts” thrown at him in public school?

Thank you,
Amanda Clark

Evolutionists often raise this issue as an objection to the concept of a creator God . After all, if there were an all-knowing Creator, why would He design men with a structure for which they have no use? In females, the nipple has an obvious function, that is, to breastfeed a baby. So what’s the purpose for nipples on males?

A frequently promoted evolutionary view of male nipples is that they are leftovers from our evolutionary past. They are often considered to be vestigial organs. The vestigial idea suggests they were functional in the past, but as the evolution of man progressed, their function was lost. Upon close examination, this view does not make sense. In fact, this is a very poor evidence for evolution .

If male nipples are, in fact, vestigial, they must have had a more robust function in the past. Does the evolutionist actually suggest that our male evolutionary ancestors breast-fed newborns, and that somehow as evolution progressed, this ability was lost? Alternatively, would the evolutionist argue that our ancestors were all females, that modern males diverged from this all female population, and that in this process they lost the ability to lactate?

Actually, evolution posits that mammals evolved from reptiles and that the divergence of male and female took place first in reptiles. Why then would another divergence occur as humans began to evolve? In reality, if evolution were true, then it could be argued that male nipples are still developing and that men should be able to breast-feed in the future!

The creation model provides a much better explanation for the presence of nipples in males. Male nipples are not a vestige of evolution but are instead a vestige of embryology. They in no way diminish the abilities of the creator God , but are actually another example of His wisdom. Nipples in males are actually an evidence of “design economy.”

Very early in their maturation, male and female human embryos are essentially the same. All these embryos have structures that will ultimately form the defining physical characteristics of male and female. In the early stages of development, all embryos have both the Wolffian duct and the Mullerian ducts, for instance. Under the influence of a Y chromosome, the Wolffian system develops into the internal and external structures of male anatomy, and the Mullerian ducts regress. Conversely, in the absence of a Y chromosome, the Wolffian system regresses considerably, and the Mullerian system develops to its full potentials, forming many of the female anatomical structures.

It should be clarified, however, that embryos do not all “start out female.” The genetic makeup of each individual is in place from the time of fertilization. Thus the “programming” for “male” and “female” is determined from the outset, and the anatomical gender is simply a result of the expression of those genes.

The mammary duct system and the associated nipple is likewise the same in both genders, developing during the sixth week. The rudimentary mammary duct system remains indistinguishable at birth. This tissue is hormonally sensitive, and it can, in either gender, respond to maternal estrogen transferred across the placenta by producing a secretion known as “witch’s milk.” Male and female breast tissue remains poorly developed until influenced by estrogen in the early stages of puberty in the female. If nipples and breasts are “useless” to males, they are equally useless to prepubescent girls, and for that matter are “useless” to any woman who is not breastfeeding a child.

It should be noted that male nipples are not useless, as has been suggested. They are very sensitive and are a source of sexual stimulation. Further, to characterize them as vestigial is problematic, as they are fully vascularized and have more than adequate nerve supply. Why would this be so if they were, in fact, a worthless by-product of our evolutionary ancestry?

Far from being a problem for creationists, the presence of nipples in males is actually another example of the wisdom and creativity of the God we serve. It is, in fact, the evolutionists who have a problem with this issue, as they can provide no reason for the existence and persistence of male nipples in an evolutionary scenario.

NIPPLES: If God created man, why do men have nipples? Surely this is a wasteful way to create.

Please note: since this question was first posted a follow-up question and answer have been added below.

Answer by John Mackay

Answer to Original Question

If evolution were true, male nipples would be redundant. Time and circumstance should have eliminated them by now. They should have been naturally selected against! But the Biblical position paints a different picture.

To answe this question you need to start with Genesis 1:26-7: the first man Adam was made in the image of God. More details are provided in Genesis 2:7 where we learn that the first man Adam was made from dust, but no woman was made at that time. God breathed into Adam, and he became a living soul. Then Adam was commissioned by the Creator to name all the animals and he soon reached the conclusion that none of the animals would be suitable mates for him. We then learn in Genesis 2:21-24, that the Creator put the man to sleep and took tissue out of his side, used this to make a woman, and brought her to Adam to be his wife. The man awoke and responded to his new wife with the poetic statement ‘Bone of my bone, flesh of my flesh – she shall be called woman because she was taken out of man’.

From Genesis to Revelation the biblical text repeats this theme that the Woman is taken from the man – she was and is meant to be one flesh with man. She is not a separate creation. Given that vital backdrop, it should be obvious that all physical attributes that would eventually be included in the Eve’s bodily design and construction had to pre-exist in the man Adam. The one flesh concept is dependent on this. God did not make a new creation in order to make a woman who would therefore have been separate and unrelated to the man. This is why man has the XY chromosome combination and woman has XX. Nothing new had to be invented. It also means, even though we trace mitochondrial DNA only through women, the first woman got it from a man.

So why do men have nipples? Perhaps a poetic ditty I made up years ago will help. Why do men have nipples? It’s not meant to deceive! If Adam neva’ ad’em, Then neeva would ’av Eve

Follow up Question Having grown up on a hobby farm, I know that male nipples aren’t unique to humans, so does this negate your explanation?

Answer by John Mackay

If we came from other animals your conclusion would be valid, but in the case of humans we are specifically told that God made the man Adam first, and then created the woman Eve from the first man (see Gen 2) . Therefore Adam had to have the DNA for everything the woman would require, especially in order for God to also declare them “one flesh.” Adam had both X and Y chromosomes, but Eve only the X. She could come from Adam but Adam could not come from Eve, without his Y chromosome being a separate creation.

Concerning all other sexually reproducing critters, we are told by God they were created and given reproductive ability “after their own kind”, but God gives us no hint that the male of any other species came first. The detail revealed about Adam and Eve in Genesis makes man unique, as does the fact that man alone was made in God’s Image. Of course male nipples have other rarely spoken about functions, such as telling you how deep the cold water is, which is a probable consequence of them being so full of sensory nerve endings for their role in providing stimulation in sexual contact – in both male and female.

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Why do men have nipples? And 9 other answers to questions about the human body…

There’s some things about our bodies that just don’t make sense, but many of these traits aren’t as bizarre as they may seem at first. In fact, many have an evolutionary tale or a sound scientific explanation behind them. Here’s some quick answers to 10 weird puzzles of human biology, kicking off with…

Why do men have nipples?
No matter how macho the end result, all male embryos start off as female and nipples are a souvenir of this androgynous origin. Every foetus contains the genetic information to be either male or female, but if there is a Y chromosome present in the embryo then after 60 days the hormone testosterone starts firing and changes the genetic activity of cells in the genitals and brain.

When we’re tired, why do we get bags under our eyes?
Blood doesn’t circulate around your body as efficiently when you’re asleep so excess water can pool under the eyes, making them puffy. Fatigue, nutrition, age and genes also cause bags. Dark rings are more likely the result of blood vessels showing through the thin layer of skin around your eyes.

A good night’s sleep can cure puffy eyes, but dark rings are caused by thin skin around the sockets

What is the point of tonsils?
The tonsils are collections of lymphatic tissues which help to fight off bacteria and viruses from the upper respiratory tract. However, they themselves can sometimes become infected – leading to tonsillitis. The ones you can see at the back of your throat are just part of the ring of tonsils. You won’t miss them if they’re taken out for recurrent infections though as the rest of your immune system will compensate.

Why are we ticklish?
Light touches, by feathers, spiders, insects or other humans, can stimulate fine nerve-endings in the skin. This stimulus sends impulses to the somatosensory cortex, an area of the brain that processes input from the various systems in the body that are sensitive to touch. Certain areas are more ticklish – such as the feet – which may indicate that it is a defence mechanism against unexpected predators. It is the unexpected nature of this stimulus that means you can be tickled. Although you can give yourself goosebumps through light tickling, you can’t make yourself laugh.

Although it’s fun for some, being ticklish could actually be an evolutionary response to unexpected predators

What makes us left-handed?
One side of the brain is typically dominant over the other. Since each hemisphere of the brain controls the opposite side (ie the left controls the right side of your body), left-handed people have a more dominant right brain hemisphere. Occasionally you’ll find an ambidextrous person, where hemispheres are co-dominant, and these people are equally capable with both right and left hands!

Why do bruises go purple or yellow?
A bruise forms when damaged capillaries under the skin leak and allow blood to settle in the surrounding tissues. The haemoglobin in red blood cells is broken down, and these by-products give a dark yellow, brown or purple discolouration depending on the volume of blood and colour of the overlying skin. Despite popular belief, you cannot age a bruise – different people’s bruises change colour at different rates.

That’ll be sore in the morning! Bruises are caused by damaged capillaries under the skin

Why does cutting onions make us cry?
When you cut an onion they expel an irritant gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. When the gas reaches a person’s eyes it activates sensory neurons around the eyes and creates a stinging sensation which, in turn, causes tears. The human body uses tears to cleanse the eye of debris and dilute any irritants. You can reduce the effects of this volatile gas by submerging the onion in water before or during the chopping.

Do eyeballs grow like the rest of the body?
Only by a very small amount – hence why babies appear so beautiful, as their eyes are slightly out of proportion and so appear bigger.

Your eyeball is almost fully grown when you are born

Why do we burp?
A burp is a natural release of gas from the stomach. This gas has either been swallowed or is the result of something you’ve ingested – such as a fizzy drink. This excess gas escapes the stomach, traveling up through the oesophagus and out through your mouth.

Why can some people roll their tongues but others can’t?
Although we’re often taught in school that tongue rolling is due to genes, the truth is likely to be more complex. There is likely to be an overlap of genetic factors and environmental influence. Studies on families and twins have shown that it cannot be a case of simple genetic inheritance. Ask around – the fact that some people can learn to do it suggests that in at least some people it’s environmental (ie a learned behaviour) rather than genetic (inborn).

Some can do it, some can’t and it might be due to a mix of learned behaviour and genetics

Why Do Men Have Nipples?

The possibility of male lactation may not seem as far-fetched as one might at first expect, since it can happen soon after a baby boy exits the womb. The hormone prolactin, which facilitates breast milk production in new mothers, can pass from the placenta to into an infant's body. After birth, that in utero prolactin bath can cause a newborn to spontaneously lactate whether it's a boy or a girl, as both are bestowed the same breast anatomy during fetal development. This nursery phenomenon is referred to as witch's milk and often stops after a couple weeks [source: Kaneshiro].

Out-of-the-blue milk-making later in a man's life might be more of a cause for alarm, however. Rarer than witch's milk, galactorrhea, or spontaneous lactation, in men often traces back to a testosterone deficiency instead of a prolactin overdose [source: Mayo Clinic]. But while modern doctors might see galactorrhea as result of a hormone imbalance, the evolutionary pioneer Charles Darwin might have suggested that a case of galactorrhea was merely evidence of bygone ancestral habits. As outlined in his 1871 thesis "The Descent of Man," Darwin presumed that early man, ably outfitted with mammary glands, divvied up breastfeeding duties with the women [source: Thomsen].

Anecdotal evidence also proves that while it doesn't happen very often, modern men can lactate and even breastfeed under similar hormonal influences as female lactation. In women, pregnancy provokes the pituitary gland to ramp up prolactin production by 10 times its normal amount, which in turn prompts the lobules (milk-producing glands) to get to work [source: Thomsen]. That same domino effect can occur from the male brain-to-breast even though it lacks the pregnancy-mediated prolactin surge, and there are far fewer lobules for the hormone to fuel. Cuddling and spending time with babies has been shown to increase the amount of prolactin in dads' bloodstreams, while tamping down on testosterone levels. Combine that hormonal reaction with the physical stimulus of a suckling infant, and a male breast could very well yield milk. Scientists point to that physiological possibility as the reason why men in an African pygmy tribe, the Aka, have been documented breastfeeding their children [source: Moorehead]. In 2002, a Sri Lankan father of two also made headlines for breastfeeding his daughters after his wife died [source: Swaminathan].

Male breastfeeding may raise eyebrows and stoke controversy about gender roles and caregiving, but ultimately the male breast anatomy poses more of a health risk than an atypical health additive for infants. While much less common than in women, breast cancer does affect thousands of men in 2012, for instance, nearly 2,220 American men were diagnosed with the condition that tends to attack the milk-producing lobules and ducts [source: National Cancer Institute]. That prevalence rate is high enough that some scientists consider male nipples and their underlying glandular network an adaptive flaw [source: Swaminathan]. If, like mice, the male nipple was nipped in the bud before birth, they wouldn't pose any potential problems or perplexing evolutionary questions about why they've stuck around for so long.

It isn't uncommon for people to be born with supernumerary, or extra, nipples that are leftover from embryonic milk lines. By one count, the incidence rate of extra nipples is one out of every 40 newborn babies [source: Mimouni, Merlob and Reisner]. Typically, these bonus nipples also are more likely to show up on men and on the left side of the body [source: Schmidt].

Why do men have nipples?

I agree. You know there was a thread a while ago, that I can't seem to find for some reason, which talked about a few instances wherein a male human was able to breast feed his children. now that was bizarre.

Can anyone locate that thread?

Originally posted by Mentat
I agree. You know there was a thread a while ago, that I can't seem to find for some reason, which talked about a few instances wherein a male human was able to breast feed his children. now that was bizarre.

Can anyone locate that thread?

Mentat. I seem to recall that thread.
What I had once read was that a man who had his nipples sucked on for 20-30 minutes at a time, several times each day, began to lactate after a period several months. I believe the story was genuine, but of course I could be mistaken.

I have heard that women who take steroids(male hormones), will grow a beard and moustache. With enough use there clitoris will begin to form into a small penis(oh god no!)

If your a male, and you take birth control pills(female hormones), you will begin to develope breast and other female characteristics.

Yes, that is true: secondary sexual organs are induced by hormones too.

There is also a disease called the Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome, where a person is born with the male (XY) chromosomes but is intersexual. 95% of intersexual people have mutations on a X-linked gene, which cause them to be insensitive to the male hormone testosterone and thus not develop the sexual organs normally in the womb (they will be infertile).

This brings up a nice seguay into the biology of homosexuality as Mentat brought up. Some neuroendocrine psychologists have found that women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia ( thus their in utero environment has higher testosterone exposure) have a much higher propensity for homosexuality. [Broken] also the latter is a 14 page discussion of the many studies.

Thus, is homosexual behavior dependent on the in utero hormonal milieu? Men who have complete androgen insensitivity ( internal undescended testicles, blind vaginal pouch) are in every way women and more likely to be attracted to men. By the way, these women ( because they have grown up as women until a physical exam at puberty to assess for why they are not menstruating) are very, very feminine and physically attractive. (remember, estrogen receptors have mild cross over sensitivity to testosterone and other androgens and when overstimulated by the huge doses of circulationg androgens, they exert all the estrogenic developmental patterns.) These women have to have their undescended testicles removed to eliminate the high chance of testicular cancer that occurs with undescended testicles. To show how very attractive they are there is a very famous, attractive, actress in Hollywood who is a confirmed complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (was a case study at UCLA, and Cedar Sinai Caalifornia) I won't divulge her name although it may be circulated already.

As for the studies on male homosexual brains, we all have probably heard of simon LeVay's work on the preoptic nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus. However, I think most clinical researchers have a problem with his work due to the fact that most of his autopsy subjects were HIV infected men and we now know how profoundly the Aids virus can change and affect the brain.

Blind vaginal pouch? Sounds lovely. So do the undecended testes. Oh, and I don't really think Jamie Lee Curtis is that hot. You're telling me Jamie Lee Curtis is a MAN? Chromosomally-speaking?

Adrenaline, you are a clinician, do you know how well socially accepted intersexual people are (ie w/ androgen insensitivity disorder). What I've heard it is a taboo and doctors advice their patients to stay quiet about it, this may lead to isolation and the avoidance of sexual behaviour.

Since JLC was married, this would argue against her being affected with the syndrome.

Originally posted by Monique
Adrenaline, you are a clinician, do you know how well socially accepted intersexual people are (ie w/ androgen insensitivity disorder). What I've heard it is a taboo and doctors advice their patients to stay quiet about it, this may lead to isolation and the avoidance of sexual behaviour.

Since JLC was married, this would argue against her being affected with the syndrome.

Those with complete androgen insensitivity syndromes are unaware of their disorder and have no ambiguous physical features unlike those with incomplete androgen insensitivity disorders or women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia who have enlarged clitorisis, facial hair etc. They grow up without much emotional trauma until puberty when they are not menstruating like their female XX counterparts. Outsiders are unaware that women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome have a problem except that these women are "sterile". These women are referred to Internists, gynecologists etc. when they have not started menstruating at the age they should. Many go on to lead normal lives, seemingly heterosexual ones (get married but need to adopt children.) Their external genitalia are exactactly that of XX females so that their partners are unaware of their problems unless they are made privey about their condition. In addition, many are quite large breasted (once again, the cross over reaction by the testosterone on the estrogen receptors). Many of these genetic males do not accept the fact that they are genetic males since they have spent 13-15 yrs without any reason to doubt they are females.

The ones who have the problems are the ones with the numerous other disorders resulting in ambiguous genitalia or virilization of secondary sexual characteristics in females. Many have to undergoe painful, reconstructive surgeries, have issues with their sexuality and sexual preferances, or need lifelong exogenous hormone replacement therapy.

As for JLC being the one, just say that the complete androgen insensitivity syndrome women I have seen make her look comely.

Vestigial organs

A nipple isn&rsquot the only organ that seems to be defunct. Wisdom teeth, the appendix and the hind limbs of a whale are examples of organs that were useful to the organism once, millions of years ago, or to a common ancestor from which it descended, but today, they are no more useful than wearing sunglasses at night. In fact, paleontologist Alfred Sherwood Romer sardonically remarked that the only importance of an appendix &ldquowould appear to be financial support of the surgical profession.&rdquo

Darwin called these purposeless remnants vestigial organs. These organs are the pulsating proof of how messy the process of evolution really is. Nature in all its beauty, essentially, is a tragically improvident coordinator. Its solutions to an evolutionary problem are highly myopic, as it provides features that satiate a very particular, immediate demand. This is generous, but improvident because these developments are irreversible. Successive generations continue to harbor them even when they are rendered, by an external interference, useless.

The appendix is one of the most popular vestigial features of the human body.

For instance, our wisdom teeth might have been useful at a time when teenagers lost their teeth after the age of 18. However, humans gradually fostered better dental hygiene, which deterred this loss of teeth. Owing to nature&rsquos myopia, however, the growth of wisdom teeth is now useless, inflicts excruciating pain and is unavoidable. Yet, it is clear that these features have adaptive explanations.

What about nipples? Why do male mammals grow an organ that doesn&rsquot seem adapted for any immediate inconvenience whatsoever? Advocating for evolution requires one to tackle the constant badgering regarding the adaptive purpose of each and every organ &mdash surely, there must be an adaptive explanation for every organ that has evolved?

Rocky Balboa (Photo Credit: Creed (Rocky 7) / Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer production)

Why Do Men Have Nipples? : Hundreds of Questions You'd Only Ask a Doctor After Your Third Martini

Say you’re at a party. You’ve had a martini or three, and you mingle through the crowd, wondering how long you need to stay before going out for pizza. Suddenly you’re introduced to someone new, Dr. Nice Tomeetya. You forget the pizza. Now is the perfect time to bring up all those strange questions you’d like to ask during an office visit with your own doctor but haven’t had the guts (or more likely the time) to do so. You’re filled with liquid courage . . . now is your chance! If you’ve ever wanted to ask a doctor . . .

•How do people in wheelchairs have sex?

•Why do I get a killer headache when I suck down my milkshake too fast?

•Can I lose my contact lens inside my head forever?

•Why does asparagus make my pee smell?

•Why do old people grow hair on their ears?

•Is the old adage “beer before liquor, never sicker, liquor before beer . . .” really true?

. . . then Why Do Men Have Nipples? is the book for you.

Compiled by Billy Goldberg, an emergency medicine physician, and Mark Leyner, bestselling author and well-known satirist, Why Do Men Have Nipples? offers real factual and really funny answers to some of the big questions about the oddities of our bodies.

Why do men have nipples?

They are only modified sweat glands. Some people can actually see the other 4. Look down your chest in line with your nipples and you might be able to spot the other 4. They probably look like freckels.

Brennen, that may not be the case. That has been the thinking for a long time, that the sexes develop identically until a critical stage during gestation when males produce a small testosterone surge that triggers differentiation into a male, and females are sort of the "default." However, some very recent work suggests this may be incorrect, and that there are indeed genes that start determining male and female much earlier in development, and female is determined, not just default.

However, development from nipples to breasts seems to be regulated hormonally beginning at puberty. in the presence of higher estrogens, breasts form in girls, and in the absence of this, they do not form in boys. Evidence that this is something that depends on hormones and is not pre-determined genetically is that male to female transexuals can develop breasts when placed on hormonal therapies to develop more feminine characteristics.

This is one of those examples of natural selection processes that shows if something doesn't hurt, there's no reason for it to go away.


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