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If animals die why dont plants?


I am not a Phd in biology so don't go hard on me.when I was walking to home after swimming class I saw a mouse dead and was intimidated by gods wonder but when I reached home I saw the Devil's ivy and my thoughts flung to the 450 year old tree in my city why didnt it die when the mouse did.


What do you mean by plants don't die? You don't have to have a PhD to comment on this! Haven't you seen dead grass or any dead plant in your life? Some trees have a long lifespan, like the banyan, but they do die. Even turtles have a long life, but that doesn't mean that they don't die.


Plants die of old age too. Trees tend to have a long lifespan but still… they die of old age.

There are few species that seem to have negligible sensescence such as

  • giant tortoise
  • greenland shark
  • aspen tree root system
  • mussel

and some that even seem to never age (biologically immortalilty) such as

  • lobster
  • hydra
  • some bacteria
  • some yeast

but you most definitely cannot make such generality as "animals age, plants don't".


The joy of chloroplasts

Ownership of a chloroplast brings an enormous and immediate benefit. Animals only have mitochondria, which allow them to oxidise glucose and harness the resulting chemical energy to fuel their metabolism. But they have to find a source of glucose. And that means dedicating a substantial part of their day to locating, subduing and consuming food. Plants on the other hand don’t have to bother. They can simply use their chloroplasts to make their own glucose, which they can then pass to the mitochondria to release chemical energy as and when it is required.

So surely everyone else is missing a trick. If plants can bypass finding glucose, then surely animals could too. In fact, many animals have done exactly this. The chloroplast was just too good an invention and many other organisms managed to beg, borrow or steal a chloroplast, mainly from free-living unicellular algae that already had one. This process is known as secondary endosymbiosis to distinguish it from the primary endosymbiotic event, in which the original plant ancestor engulfed a free-living cyanobacterium.

Why can’t I photosynthesise? R

It’s not entirely clear why secondary endosymbiosis appears to have occurred many times, while the primary endosymbiosis occurred only once although recently scientists have discovered a second example of a primary endosymbiosis in the making. In this case the host is a strange amoeba called Paulinella, which appears to be domesticating a cyanobacteria from the new and hence recreating the ancient event that gave rise to the land plants.

The transfer of the chloroplast around the tree of life by secondary endosymbiosis has given rise to a whole host of ecologically important organisms, most of which are unicellular. These organisms, for example, diatoms, dinoflagellates and euglenids, are unknown to most of us and arise from independent acquisitions of a chloroplast from an alga.

Perhaps most interesting of all for our story, these unicellular photosynthesising organisms have themselves been taken up by multicellular animals. These symbioses have evolved independently many times and the relationship between the host and the photosymbiont can take many forms.


If animals die why dont plants? - Biology

The simple answer is yes, all plants die. Plants are very different than we animals are, though, and the answer to your question is actually not as simple as that.

First, plants have what's known as "indeterminate growth." That means that,unlike animals, there's no set size or age when a plant is considered mature or old. If conditions are right, they can simply grow and grow with almost no limitations. (The two limitations they'd eventually experience would be that they'd get so big that:
1. they could no longer support the weight of their own bodies, and
2. water could no longer travel reach all the way from their roots to their branches.)

If humans and other animals were like this,it would be like you being 25 feet tall and still growing as long as your parents kept feeding you!

The second big difference between plants and animals is that most plant cells can change at any time into another cell type, dividing many, many times in the process. This is called being "perpetually embryonic," and it's why plants can keep growing indefinitely. It's also why you can stick a leaf or green twig in a glass of water and it will start growing roots.

Animals have very rare and special cells like that called stem cells, but most animal cells are stuck being what they are (like skin cells or nerve cells),and they can't really divide much anymore.

What all this means is that the reasons why animals die (we stop growing,our cells stop dividing and "wear out") don't affect plants. Many kinds of trees commonly live for thousands of years. Other plants send up new plants from the end of their roots--those new plants do the same thing, and this continues on and on until you have a single plant that's many miles across!It looks like many different plants to us, but that's just because we can't see that they're all connected underground. The first part of the plant in the middle may eventually die, but all its other parts keep living and living--I don't know if anyone knows how old those plants can get.

Just because of the laws of physics, though, I think it's safe to say that even those plants eventually die. Plus, you have to remember that conditions in nature are never perfect for very long. So, even though a plant has the ability to possibly live forever, something will eventually happen to kill it like drought, fire, disease, or other plants using up all the soil nutrients.
Excellent question!


Plant conservation matters for environmental health. But it also matters, ultimately, for human health

This is problematic. Plant conservation matters for environmental health. But it also matters, ultimately, for human health.

Plant research is critical to many scientific breakthroughs, from hardier food crops to more effective medicines. More than 28,000 plant species are used medicinally, including plant-derived anti-cancer drugs and blood thinners. (BBC Future recently wrote about one recent example: how mushrooms could help us fight cancer).

The Madagascar periwinkle contains two alkaloids that are used to fight leukaemia and Hodgkin’s disease (Credit: Getty)

Experimenting on plants also offers an ethical advantage over some forms of animal testing: versatile techniques in areas like genome editing can be refined using plants, which are easy and inexpensive to breed and control. For instance, the genome sequencing of Arabidopsis, a flowering plant important in biology research, was a landmark not only in plant genetics, but in genome sequencing in general.

Given how crucial plants are – and always have been – to our very survival, how did humans come to be “plant-blind”?

Seeing green

There are cognitive and cultural reasons that animals, even animal species no more objectively important to humans than plants, are easier to distinguish.

Part of it is how we categorise the world. “The brain is fundamentally a difference detector,” Schussler and Wandersee explain. Because plants barely move, grow close to each other, and are often similar in colour, our brains tend to group them together. With about 10 million bits of visual data per second transmitted by the human retina, the human visual system filters out non-threatening things like plants and clumps them together.

Because plants tend to be similar in colour and almost unmoving, our brains tend to group them together (Credit: Amanda Ruggeri)

This isn’t restricted to humans. Limited attentional capacity even may affect the ways blue jays visually hone in on plants and insects around them.

Then there is our preference for biobehavioural similarity: as primates, we tend to notice creatures that are most similar to us. “From my experience with great apes, they are generally more interested in the creatures more similar to them in appearance,” says Fumihiro Kano, an ape psychologist at Japan’s Kyoto University. As with humans, there’s a social element to this visual preference. “Human-reared apes are more interested in human images than non-human images, including their own species,” Kano says.

In human societies, there’s also constant reinforcement of the idea that animals are fundamentally more interesting and visible than plants. We name animals and assign them human characteristics. We often use animals as sport team mascots. And we’re attuned to individual variation among animals: the personality of a dog, say, or the unique colour pattern of a butterfly.


Science, Medicine, and Animals (1991)

Human beings use animals for a wide variety of purposes, including research. The approximately 260 million people in the United States keep about 110 million dogs and cats as pets. More than 5 billion animals are killed in the United States each year as a source of food. Animals are used for transportation, for sport, for recreation, and for companionship. 7

Animals are also used to learn more about living things and about the illnesses that afflict human beings and other animals. By studying animals, it is possible to obtain information that cannot be learned in any other way. When a new drug or surgical technique is developed, society deems it unethical to use that drug or technique first in human beings because of the possibility that it would cause harm rather than good. Instead, the drug or technique is tested in animals to make sure that it is safe and effective.

Animals also offer experimental models that would be impossible to replicate using human subjects. Animals can be fed identical and closely monitored diets. As with inbred mice, members of some animal species are genetically identical, enabling researchers to compare different procedures on identical animals. Some animals have biological similarities to humans that make them particularly good models for specific diseases, such as rabbits for atherosclerosis or monkeys for polio. (The polio vaccine was developed, and its safety is still tested, in monkeys.) Animals are also indispensable to the rapidly growing field of biotechnology, where they are used to develop, test, and make new products such as monoclonal antibodies.

Researchers draw upon the full range of living things to study life, from bacteria to human beings. 8 Many basic biological processes are best studied in single cells, tissue cultures, or plants, because they are the easiest to grow or examine. But researchers also investigate a wide range of animal species, from insects and nematodes to dogs, cats, and monkeys. In particular, mammals are essential to researchers because they are the closest to us in evolutionary terms. For example, many diseases that affect human beings also affect other mammals, but they do not occur in insects, plants, or bacteria.

Far fewer animals are used in research than are used for other purposes. An estimated 17 to 22 million vertebrate animals are used each year in research, education, and testing&mdashless than 1 percent of the number killed for food. 9 About 85 percent of these animals are rats and mice that have been bred for research. In fiscal year 1988, about 142,000 dogs and 52,000 cats were used in experimentation, with 40,000 to 50,000 of those dogs being bred specifically for research and the others being acquired from pounds. 10 Between 50,000 and 60,000 nonhuman primates, such as monkeys and chimpanzees, are studied each year, many of them coming from breeding colonies in the United States. 11


How pandas survive on their bamboo-only diet

Pandas are one of the world’s most fascinating vegetarians. Their digestive systems evolved to process meat, yet they eat nothing but bamboo—all day, every day. A new study reveals how these animals survive on a diet that should kill them.

Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are a type of bear, and they still retain a meat eater’s digestive system, with a simple stomach and a short small intestine. They don’t have a four-chambered stomach like a cow to digest plants efficiently, and a pure bamboo diet contains hardly any protein and a lot of indigestible fiber.

To understand how pandas subsist on such a diet, researchers radio-collared three male and three female pandas in the Qinling Mountains of China and observed what they ate in their natural habitats for 6 years. The team also analyzed the panda diet in depth by measuring the amounts of nitrogen, phosphorous, and calcium—the three most essential nutrients for mammals—in the plants they ate.

“There is strong evidence that animals try to forage as effectively as possible to meet their nutritional needs, mixing dietary items to provide a full complement of nutrients,” writes primatologist Jessica Rothman of the City University Of New York’s Hunter College, who was not involved in the study, in an e-mail. “In areas with only one edible plant, animals may try to consume different parts of the same food.”

That’s exactly what the pandas seem to be doing. The two bamboo species in Qinling, wood bamboo and arrow bamboo, grow at different elevations and sprout new shoots and leaves at different times of the year. The tracking collars revealed that during mating season in the spring, pandas fed on young wood bamboo shoots, which are rich in nitrogen and phosphorous. In June, the wood bamboo shoots had matured and contained fewer nutrients, so pandas migrated to higher elevations and started eating young arrow bamboo shoots. However, both species’ shoots had low calcium levels, which pushed pandas toward the next dietary shift in mid-July: young arrow bamboo leaves, which are rich in calcium.

This dietary juggling act appears to affect panda reproduction, the team reports online this month in Functional Ecology. Although the animals mate in the spring, they undergo “delayed implantation”—the embryo remains in a state of arrested development in the mother’s uterus until it attaches and resumes growth. The authors speculate that panda embryos continue development only after there is sufficient calcium in the diet.

In August, females return to the lower elevations and deliver tiny, pink panda babies. The adult mothers start eating young wood bamboo leaves, which have sufficient nutrients, including the calcium necessary for lactation. Pandas have the shortest gestation period among bears, about 2 to 3 months compared with 6 months in other species. They also have the smallest offspring—newborns weigh just 90 to 130 grams, whereas other bear cubs are a more brawny 300 to 400 grams. Their small size could be due to the nutrient limitations of their habitat, the authors say.

But even nutritional juggling may not allow pandas to survive the winter. Wood bamboo leaves age over this season, and their nutrient levels drop, causing high mortality among pandas. In fact, records from Qinling show that among 25 cases of dead or ill pandas over the past 37 years, more than half occurred in March and April, right after the hardships of winter.

The study helps explain how pandas survive on such a limited diet, says wildlife biologist Dajun Wang of Peking University in Beijing, who has worked on pandas in Qinling. But he says the animals may be getting nutrients from other places as well. “I have seen them scavenge from time to time,” he writes in an e-mail. “They may also get calcium and other nutrients from licking rocks.”


Endangered Species

Some animals and plants in our world are very common, like houseflies, cats or daisies. They are not in danger of dying out. Other species are very rare. Sometimes only a few of them are left. Such species may disappear forever.

Ever since life on earth began, animals and plants have died out and new ones have appeared. Dinosaurs, for example, roamed the planet during the earth&rsquos middle ages. 65 million years ago they disappeared forever.

Animals and plants need each other to survive. They keep the world of nature in balance. If a certain plant dies out some animals may become extinct too, because they depend on the plant for food.

Why species become extinct

Long ago, most animals and plants became extinct because of natural events, like earthquakes or volcano eruptions. Climatic changes, like the beginning of the Ice Age, also led to the disappearance of certain species. Today, plants and animals are in danger mostly because of human beings.

Some plants and animals can survive in many areas. When they move to other places they adapt to their new environment very quickly. Others can only live in certain areas. We call such a living place a habitat. If a habitat is destroyed the species cannot find any more food or a place to live, sleep or have babies. So it dies out.

Habitats can be destroyed in many ways. More and more people live in our world. They need more space to live in. Rainforests, grasslands and other parts of nature are cleared and people start to settle there. They take away the natural home of plants and animals.

Pollution can also kill off certain species. Acid rain from factories goes down in rivers and lakes and can poison fish there.

The most endangered areas are the tropical rainforests. More than 50 % of all animals and plants live there. Every day, thousands of acres of rainforest are destroyed and many species become extinct every day.

Ever since man appeared on earth he has killed animals and gathered plants. They have been used for food, medicine, clothes and to make homes. Cheetahs, tigers and other wild cats have been killed for their skins. Whales have been hunted for centuries because of their oil and blubber.

Most animals today are protected by international law, but many, like the black rhinoceros and the African elephant are hunted illegally. Some species, like wolves, have been killed by humans because they were seen as a danger to farm animals.

Sometimes native animals become endangered when a new species comes to live in a place. Foxes were brought to Australia to kill off rabbits, which were seen as a pest. But instead of killing rabbits, the foxes killed kangaroos and other marsupials of Australia.

Parasites belong to the greatest threats to plants and animals. Tiny organisms, bacteria and fungi can destroy trees, kill birds and fish.

Protection

People have hurt plants and animals but they are also willing to help them survive. All over the world organizations like the World Wildlife Fund, the Rainforest Action Network or Friends of the Earth are helping to protect habitats. They raise money for their projects and make governments and the public listen to them. New laws have also been made to protect endangered plants and animals all over the world.


The Cell Wall

The cell wall is a rigid covering that protects the cell, provides structural support, and gives shape to the cell. Fungal and protistan cells also have cell walls. While the chief component of prokaryotic cell walls is peptidoglycan, the major organic molecule in the plant cell wall is cellulose, a polysaccharide comprised of glucose units. When you bite into a raw vegetable, like celery, it crunches. That&rsquos because you are tearing the rigid cell walls of the celery cells with your teeth.

Figure: Cellulose: Cellulose is a long chain of &beta-glucose molecules connected by a 1-4 linkage. The dashed lines at each end of the figure indicate a series of many more glucose units. The size of the page makes it impossible to portray an entire cellulose molecule.


Animal Dads

Most animals never even see their parents! Many never meet their fathers and some never meet their mothers, either. Some insects, fish, amphibians and reptiles hatch from fertilized eggs and face life completely alone. When animals are raised by parents, it's most often the mother who does the rearing. But we found some unusual animal dads.

Catfish: A father sea catfish keeps the eggs of his young in his mouth until they are ready to hatch. He will not eat until his young are born, which may take several weeks.

Cockroach: A father cockroach eats bird droppings to obtain precious nitrogen, which he carries back to feed his young.

Duck: Most male ducks live as bachelors, but the ruddy duck of North America helps care for his young.

Since earthworms have both male and female sex organs, every earthworm can be both a mother and a father! Animals that have both male and female organs are called hermaphrodites.

Frog: The male Darwin frog hatches his eggs in a pouch in his mouth. He can eat and continue about his business until his tadpoles lose their tails, become tiny frogs, and jump out of his mouth!

Monkey: Marmosets are tiny South American monkeys. The fathers take care of their babies from birth. When the marmoset is born, the father cleans it, then carries it to the mother only when it needs to be nursed. When the baby can eat solid food, the father will feed it.

Penguin: A father Emperor penguin withstands the Antarctic cold for 60 days or more to protect his eggs, which he keeps on his feet, covered with a feathered flap. During this entire time he doesn't eat a thing. Most father penguins lose about 25 pounds while they wait for their babies to hatch. Afterward, they feed the chicks a special liquid from their throats. When the mother penguins return to care for the young, the fathers go to sea to eat and rest.

Rhea: Rheas are large South American birds similar to ostriches. Father rhea takes sole care of his young. From eggs to chicks, he feeds, defends, and protects them until they are old enough to survive on their own.

Sand grouse: A father Namaqua sand grouse of Africa's Kalahari Desert flies as far as 50 miles a day in order to soak himself in water and return to his nest, where his chicks can drink from his feathers!

Sea horse: The male sea horse has a pouch in which the mother lays her eggs. The father then looks after the eggs for about two months, until they hatch and leave the pouch. He continues to protect the young until they are able to live on their own.

Siamese fighting fish: When the mother lays her eggs, the father catches them in his mouth, then drops them into a nest he has prepared. He guards the nest and protects the baby fish when they hatch.

Wolf: When the mother wolf gives birth to pups, the father stands guard outside their den and brings food to the mother and pups. As they grow, he not only plays with them but also teaches them how to survive. Wolves continue to live together much as human families do.