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Can fruit tissue be cultured and grown independent from the plant?

Can fruit tissue be cultured and grown independent from the plant?


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Can fruit tissue be grown in a tissue culture as is done to other plant tissues? From the answer to this question, I learned that fruit is alive. Could it be possible to manufacture fruit products without plants, using this method?


Plants are not a strong suit for me, but in general the answer is yes. What I know mostly comes from animal tissue, so someone may have a better answer than I…

Botanists have been cloning plants from cuttings for thousands of years. More recently, propagation from cell lines around for much longer than for animals. Entire plants can often be grown from a plate of cells. So you can grow roots or an entire plant from cells right now, but I can't find any mention of anyone trying to grow fruit without the rest of the plant, and there might not be any research for this. Let me explain why this may be…

Bioengineering animal tissue and organ growth has been an intensive area of research for the past 15 years or so. In some cases, such as the growth of skin or liver, the technology has proven to be exceptionally valuable and useful.

Using plastics with biological growth factors attached and 3D printing, even more complex organs such as bladders and tracheas can be grown from the patients own cells, which avoids the problems of rejection and the complexities of donor matching.

More recently growing muscle tissue in an animal free culture has been tried, which would relieve some of the environmental and ethical problems of raising meat animals.

All this has been driven by a strong cost-benefit payoff. A transplanted organ is highly valuable and improving that process and making organs more broadly available for patients has a high economic value. The more often the structure is related to the tissue around, the more structurally complex, the more difficult it is to imagine growing that organ independently of the host organism (brain and eyes come to mind). Other transplant worthy tissue cultures look quite promising.

Right now, it seems as if plant fruit like an apple or a kiwi might be difficult/expensive to grow in the lab as opposed to just picking them off the tree. I think that growing a banana pulp or an apple sauce might be possible, though. Who knows what we might be doing in 50 years or more though?


Tissue culture

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Tissue culture, a method of biological research in which fragments of tissue from an animal or plant are transferred to an artificial environment in which they can continue to survive and function. The cultured tissue may consist of a single cell, a population of cells, or a whole or part of an organ. Cells in culture may multiply change size, form, or function exhibit specialized activity (muscle cells, for example, may contract) or interact with other cells.


Disadvantages of Tissue Culture

  • Tissue Culture can require more labor and cost more money.
  • There is a chance that the propagated plants will be less resilient to diseases due to the type of environment they are grown in.
  • It is imperative that, before being cultured, the material is screened failure to pick up any abnormalities could lead to the new plants being infected.
  • While the success rate is high if the correct procedures are followed, success with the tissue culture is not a guarantee. There is still a chance that the process triggers a secondary metabolic chemical reaction, and the new explants or cells' growth gets stunted, or even die off.

As you can see, the advantages do seem to outweigh the disadvantages. Sure, you may have to spend a bit more money to get your DIY tissue culture going, but the rewards certainly outweigh the initial cost. So, let's take a look at the Tissue Culture Process and see if we can break down the complicated terms into something a little more digestible.

Let's start at the beginning there are two main types of cultures:

  • Primary Culture: Healthy tissues extracted from living matter or organisms. In plant tissue culture, this could be either the leaves or other parts of the plant- depending on the protocol.
  • Cultures of Established Cell Lines: This type of tissue culture involves the culturing of primary cells that have already been mutated (even from tumors or biopsies) and are replicating

Auxins

The term auxin is derived from the Greek word auxein, which means &ldquoto grow. &rdquo Auxins are the main hormones responsible for cell elongation in phototropism and gravitropism. They also control the differentiation of meristem into vascular tissue and promote leaf development and arrangement. While many synthetic auxins are used as herbicides, indole acetic acid (IAA) is the only naturally-occurring auxin that shows physiological activity. Apical dominance (the inhibition of lateral bud formation) is triggered by auxins produced in the apical meristem. Flowering, fruit setting and ripening, and inhibition of abscission (leaf falling) are other plant responses under the direct or indirect control of auxins. Auxins also act as a relay for the effects of the blue light and red/far-red responses.

Commercial use of auxins is widespread in plant nurseries and for crop production. IAA is used as a rooting hormone to promote growth of adventitious roots on cuttings and detached leaves. Applying synthetic auxins to tomato plants in greenhouses promotes normal fruit development. Outdoor application of auxin promotes synchronization of fruit setting and dropping, which coordinates the harvesting season. Fruits such as seedless cucumbers can be induced to set fruit by treating unfertilized plant flowers with auxins.


Compound (serpentine) Layering

Compound (serpentine) layering is similar to simple layering, but several layers can result from a single stem. Bend the stem to the rooting medium as for simple layering, but alternately cover and expose sections of the stem. Each section should have at least one bud exposed and one bud covered with soil. Wound the lower side of each stem section to be covered (Figure 3). This method works well for plants producing vine-like growth such as heart-leaf philodendron, pothos, wisteria, clematis, and grapes.

Figure 3. Compound (serpentine) layering.

Figure 3. Compound (serpentine) layering.

Can fruit tissue be cultured and grown independent from the plant? - Biology

Article Summary:

PLANT TISSUE CULTURE: It's Techniques, Applications, Advantages and Disadvantages in Plant Biotechnology
Author: Cornelius Onye Nichodemus

Plant tissue culture is a collection of techniques used to sustain or grow plant cells, tissues or organs under sterile conditions on a nutrient culture medium of known composition. Plant tissue culture is used to produce clones of plant in a method called micopropagation. Plant tissue culture relies on the fact that many plant cells have the ability to regenerate into a whole plant in a process called totipotency. Single cells without cell walls (protoplasts), pieces of leaves, stems or roots can often be used to generate a new plant on culture media given the required nutrients and hormones. The plant part obtained from a plant to be cultured is called explant while the main plant it is obtained from is called mother plant. Explant can be taken from different plant parts such as shoots, leaves, stems, flowers, roots, single undifferentiated cells etc.

Preparation of plant tissues for tissue culture is performed under aseptic conditions under HEPA filtered air provided by laminar flow cabinet. The tissue is grown in sterile containers inside Petri dish, test tube or flasks in a growth room with controlled temperature and light intensity. Living plant materials are usually contaminated on their surfaces (or sometimes interior) with microorganisms, so their surfaces are stressed in chemical solutions (e.g alcohol and sodium hypochlorite). The sterile explant are placed on the solid and liquid media are generally composed of inorganic salts, organic nutrients, vitamins and plant hormones. Solid media are prepared from liquid media with the addition of gelling agent (agar). The composition of the medium, particularly the plant hormones and the nitrogen source have profound effects on the morphology of the tissues that grow from the initial explant. For instance, an excess of auxin will result in a proliferation of roots while an excess of cytokinin may yield to shoots proliferation. A balance of both auxin and cytokinin will often produce an unorganised growth of cells called callus, but the morphology of the outgrowth will depend on the plant species as well as the medium composition.

Plant tissue culture can be used widely in plant science, forestry and even in horticulture. They include:
1. Commercial production of plants used as landscape, potting and florist subject which uses meristem and shoot culture.

2. To conserve endangered plant species to avoid extinction.

3. To screen cells rather than plants for specific characters such as herbicide resistance/tolerance.

4. Use of meristem tip cultures to produce clean plant material from virus stock such as potatoes.

5. To produce disease free plants due to its production in sterile environment

6. For chromosome doubling and induction of polyploidy for example doubled haploid, tetraploids, and other forms of polyploids. This is usually achieved by application of antimitotic agents such as Colchicine or Oryzalin.

1. To quickly produce mature plants

2. The production of multiples of plants in the absence of seeds or pollinators to produce seeds

3. The production of exact copies of plants that produce particularly good flowers, fruits or have other desirable traits

4. The production of plants in sterile conditions with greatly reduced chances of transmitting diseases, pests and pathogens

5. The production of plants from seeds that otherwise have low chances of germinating and growing.

6. To mass propagate plants for commercial use.

7. It also produces disease-free plants due to its method of growth.

1. The setting up of a plant tissue culture laboratory is very expensive including it's machines and reagents

2. The experiments of tissue culture must be handled by highly trained people as the procedure requires special care and careful observations.

3. If all the plants are genetically similar, there is reduction in genetic diversity.

4. If a plant is susceptible to disease, all the plants of this cloned stock will share this undesirable trait and be susceptible to that particular disease.

5. The procedures depends on the type of species being cultured, hence there is need for trail and error method for any new species if there is no review about that species.

6. If precautions are not taken, the whole stock may be contaminated or infected.

About Author / Additional Info:
I am a First Class graduate of plant Science and biotechnology from University of port Harcourt, currently pursuing my masters in plant biotechnology.

Important Disclaimer: All articles on this website are for general information only and is not a professional or experts advice. We do not own any responsibility for correctness or authenticity of the information presented in this article, or any loss or injury resulting from it. We do not endorse these articles, we are neither affiliated with the authors of these articles nor responsible for their content. Please see our disclaimer section for complete terms.


Conclusion

In reality, there are numerous methods used for tissue culture given that there are different types of tissues that require specific conditions for the culture process yield desired results.

Both plant and animal tissue can be used for tissue culture purposes for a wide range of purposes. For instance, animal tissue culture may serve such purposes as preservation of an organ/tissue, studying the tutors or given tissues or for diagnosis purposes.

On the other hand, plant tissue culture may be used for cloning purposes, genetic modification of a given plant or simply to accelerate or increase yield of the plant of interest.

Tissue culture is therefore of great significance in biological studies due to its wide range of applications. The processes involved in tissue culture may be complex, requiring a lot of care to avoid such effects as contamination. Because of the complexities that may be involved in some of the steps, this may not be an experiment for everyone.


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Plant Science will publish in the minimum of time, research manuscripts as well as commissioned reviews, method papers (technical papers) and commentaries recommended by its referees in all areas of experimental plant biology with emphasis in the broad areas of genomics, proteomics, biochemistry (including enzymology), physiology, cell biology, development, genetics, functional plant breeding, systems biology and the interaction of plants with the environment. Although manuscripts containing large data are welcomed, they must contain functional validation.

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Can fruit tissue be cultured and grown independent from the plant? - Biology

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Coca, (Erythroxylum coca), tropical shrub, of the family Erythroxylaceae, the leaves of which are the source of the drug cocaine.

The plant, cultivated in Africa, northern South America, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan, grows about 2.4 metres (8 feet) tall. The branches are straight, and the lively green leaves are thin, opaque, oval, and more or less tapering at the extremities. A marked characteristic of the leaf is an areolated portion bounded by two longitudinal curved lines, one on each side of the midrib, and more conspicuous on the under face of the leaf. The flowers are small and disposed in little clusters on short stalks the corolla is composed of five yellowish white petals, the anthers are heart-shaped, and the pistil consists of three carpels united to form a three-chambered ovary. The flowers are succeeded by red berries.

The plants thrive best in hot, damp situations, such as the clearings of forests, but the leaves most preferred are obtained in drier localities, on the sides of hills. The leaves are considered ready for plucking when they break on being bent. The green leaves (matu) are spread in thin layers and dried in the sun they are then packed in sacks, which, in order to preserve the quality, must be kept from damp.

The composition of different specimens of coca leaves is very inconstant. Good samples have a strong tealike odour when chewed, they produce a sense of warmth in the mouth and have a pleasant, pungent taste. Besides the important alkaloid cocaine, there are several other alkaloids.


The Origin of Cultivated Fruits and Vegetables

Most plants are poisonous. Humans have cultivated those few that were edible and nutritious or good tasting, and have selectively bred them over thousands of years for a variety of traits including size, flavor, and color. We have also moved them around a lot! The geographic region from which our food crops originated is not always obvious from their present day distribution. Michael Pollan's book, The Botany of Desire, or the documentary film made from it, is a good review if you're interested in learning more about the origins and selective breeding of plants to produce more favorable forms.

While today we grow most crops in many more places than from whence they originated, modern agriculture tends to favor large stands of a single variety, like Russet potatoes, or the Cavendish banana most of us know, which comes from a single clone. Such monocultures are more susceptible to disease, so it may be very useful for us to go back to the places where wild types or less common varieties grow (if they still do). We can use that genetic diversity to help make our modern crops more hardy while also possibly allowing for new and interesting types.

Source Fruits Vegetables
North America Blackberry Jerusalem Artichoke
Blueberry
Cranberry
Dewberry
Gooseberry *
Grape *
Raspberry
Strawberry *
Central America Cherimoya Corn
Papaya
Sapodilla
Sapote
South America Avocado Green Bean
Pineapple Lima Bean
Strawberry * Peppers
Potato
Pumpkin
Squash
Sweet Potato
Tomato
Europe (Western) Currant Carrot
Gooseberry * Cabbage
Parsnip
Turnip
Europe (Eastern) Apple Endive Lettuce
Pear Horseradish
Africa Date Artichoke
Watermelon Okra
Yam
Middle East Cherry Asparagus
Fig Beet
Grape * Celery
Olive Cress
Plum Lettuce
Onion
Pea
Radish
Spinach
India Lemon Cucumber
Lime Eggplant
Mango
Muskmelon
China Apricot Chinese Cabbage
Peach
Persimmon
Southeast Asia Banana
Orange
Tangerine
Micronesia Grapefruit

Would it surprise you to learn that the humble tomato, a member of the deadly nightshade family, was once believed to be poisonous, and was called the love apple? Or that throughout most of history, the Italians had no tomato sauce for their spaghetti?

Isn't it interesting that the Irish, who flocked to America in the 1850s because of potato famines in their homeland, never had potatoes before Columbus? How did they get so attached to them? What did they eat before?

Did you know that papaya and pineapple, fruits associated with Hawaii, originated in Central and South America? With the possible exception of the coconut, the Polynesians carried most of their food crops with them by outrigger canoe from island to island as they settled the South Pacific.

Can you guess which vegetable is fermented to make Vodka in Russia? Hint-it isn't a grape!

Oranges grow very well in Florida and California, but they've only been growing there since the Spanish missionaries brought them. Where did they come from?

Speaking of grapes, how could grapes be native to both the Middle East and North America, but nowhere else? Why might strawberries be native to both North and South America but not Central America?

Did you know that cabbage, kale, broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, kohlrabi, collards, and chinese cabbage are all one species, Brassica oleracea? They have been artifically bred from wild cabbage to emphasize different parts of the plant. Maybe that's why if you dislike one you tend to hate them all!

Did you know that one of the likely reasons the North American Indians never developed agriculture on a large scale was that there was just nothing edible? This only began to change when they began trading with their more agriculturally prosperous neighbors in Central and South America.

Humans came out of Africa, but the Middle East is the "Cradle of Civilization." Could it have anything to do with all the good stuff to eat that was available there?

The fruit and vegetable "Who am I" game

1. Sometimes people make a juice out of me, but don't drink me too often or you'll turn orange!

2. When Columbus landed in the new world, he thought he was in India so he called the natives "Indians." He was told to bring back spices, so guess what he called me?

3. In Germany, people who first grew me tried to eat my leaves, but they tasted terrible. They almost gave up on me till they tried my tubers!

4. When you cook me, I will weep and sigh.

5. I used to be called a love apple, and people thought I was poisonous. Now I'm on your pizza.

6. Russians ferment me to make Vodka. Hint: I'm not a grape.

7. I was taken out of the wild in Europe and turned into all of the following: kale, broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, kohlrabi, collards.

8. I grow in huge plantations in Hawaii, but I'm an immigrant from South America.

9. I came from India, and I'm very sour.

10. Native Americans ground me into a "meal" and used me for baking.

11. If you've eaten me, you've also probably eaten the tiny wasp that died inside my fruit.

12. I am a North American, and am one of the very few blue foods.

13. I am incorrectly called a berry, and my seeds sit on the outside of a pulpy cusion.

14. I have a mutant relative, the nectarine, that isn't fuzzy.

15. My kind of fruit is called a "pome", and that's my real name in French.

16. I might be used to scare people in the Autumn, but I also make a great tasting pie!

17. My family can "fix" nitrogen in my roots, so growing me actually improves your soil!

18. People eat my flowers, and they love my heart, but I am thorny so be careful.

19. When a blight destroyed my crop, thousands of Irish starved and left their homeland for the New World.

20. Wheat, rice, corn, oats, barley, millet, and bamboo are all members of this family. Without us, most humans would go hungry. What is our family called?

Answers: 1. carrot 2. hot peppers 3. potato 4. eggplant 5. tomato 6. grain or potato 7. cabbage 8. pineapple 9. lemon 10. corn 11. fig 12. blueberry 13. strawberry 14. peach 15. apple 16. pumpkin 17. beans 18. artichoke 19. potato 20. the grasses


Watch the video: φύτεμα λεμονιάς - lemon planting - how to - - unbelievable trick (June 2022).


Comments:

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