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Why are vertebrae, specifically, so important in classification?

Why are vertebrae, specifically, so important in classification?



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A fundamental level of animal classification is the distinction between vertebrates and invertebrates. The vertebrata are, arguably, often classified as higher life forms than the invertebrata. But why is the presence of the spine so important? Why not use the simpler concept of internal bones as a classifier?

I might be missing something, but I can't think of any creature that has an endoskeleton but no spine. Do any such creatures exist? If not, why does classification focus on the spine and not the endoskeleton?


Short answer
The term vertebrata stems from grouping animals according to obvious gross anatomical distinguishing features as typically used in the early days of taxonomy. However, from a phylogenetic point of view, the presence of the neural crest during embryonic development, which is unique to this subset of animals in the phylum chordata, is a much more important distinguishing feature than the presence of vertebrae.

Background
Vertebrates belong to the phylum chordata, but share some characters that make them unique. Chordates, with a few exceptions, are active animals with bilaterally symmetric bodies that are longitudinally differentiated into head, trunk and tail. The most distinctive morphological features of chordates are the notochord, nerve cord, and visceral clefts and arches.

Vertebrates feature neural crest cells, which sets them apart from any other group. These cells appear early in development, and only vertebrates have them. Neural crest cells form the skull and jaw bones.

The neural crest has sometimes been called the fourth germ layer because of its importance (Fig. 1). The neural crest cells produce a variety of cell types, including (1) the neurons and glial cells of the sensory, sympathetic, and parasympathetic nervous systems, (2) the epinephrine-producing (medulla) cells of the adrenal gland, (3) the pigment-containing cells of the epidermis, and (4) many of the skeletal and connective tissue components of the head (Gilbert, 2000).


Fig. 1. Regions of the neural crest. The cranial neural formt the bones and cartilage of the face and neck. It also produces pigment and cranial nerves. The vagal neural crest (near somites 1-7) and the sacral neural crest (posterior to somite 28) form the parasympathetic nerves of the gut. The cardiac neural crest cells arise from the neural crest by somites 1-3. Neural crest cells of the trunk (about somite 6 through the tail) make the sympathetic neurons, and a subset of these (at the level of somites 18-24) form the medulla portion of the adrenal gland. Source: Gilbert (2000)

In all, the term vertebrates is just a reflection of an apparent and obvious marker of this group of animals, namely the presence of vertebrae, but their distinguishing most important feature is the presence of the neural crest during development.

Reference
- Gilbert. Developmental Biology, 6th ed. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates (2000)


Cervical Vertebrae

The cervical vertebrae are the bones within the neck. The vertebrae are the bones that make up the backbone of vertebrate animals. These cervical bones are the smallest in the body in mammals, although they are not the smallest bones found within the animal. The bones are identified as C1 through C7, and they increase in size as you move down the body.

The C1 vertebra is also known as the atlas. It sits at the base of the skull and forms the atlanto-occipital joint. The next vertebra, C2, is known as the axis, and it forms the atlanto-axial joint. These are important for the movement of the head and neck, including the action of nodding.

In some species of animals, there are ribs located on the cervical vertebrae, similar to the ribs that are located on the thoracic vertebrae. These ribs can be large in some animals, such as lizard species, while they tend to be small in birds.

The cervical vertebrae are illustrated in the below image, which shows a computer-generated model of C1 through C7:


Why Is Taxonomy Important?

Taxonomy is a system that is used to classify organisms. It is important because the classification of organisms show the relationship between the organism and its contemporaries. Classification also shows past relationships between the organism and its ancestors.

The rank on a taxon shows the similarities between the members. The lower the rank, the more similarities that exist between members. Every taxon has a special name. The ranks as well as the nomenclature of a taxon are standardized by international bureaus and congresses. This standardization is what makes it possible for biologists across the world to identify a particular organism. Common names of organisms may vary depending on where in the world they are found. This means that the name of an organism can be different from one country to the next. When an organism has one scientific name, it makes it easier for scientists to identify it, no matter where in the world the organism is found. The basic system of scientific classification has eight groups of taxa. Every living organism is given a place in a group. Taxonomists place each group in a classification framework based on their research. This can be difficult if the group contains rare or extinct organisms.


Classification of Bacteria

Classification of bacteria helps scientists, medical microbiologists, and epidemiologists recognize different bacterial species and understand the effects of similar species. The following article will cover a scientific flowchart that will help you understand the different groups of bacteria clearly.

Classification of bacteria helps scientists, medical microbiologists, and epidemiologists recognize different bacterial species and understand the effects of similar species. The following article will cover a scientific flowchart that will help you understand the different groups of bacteria clearly.

What drew me towards becoming a microbiologist was the world of unseen organisms. There are millions and millions of these microscopic organisms around and even within us. For a common man, there may not be much difference between a bacterium and a virus. Bacteria are unicellular microorganisms that come in different shapes. There are different kinds of bacteria, like beneficial bacteria as well as pathogenic bacteria. Beneficial bacteria help in fermentation of food and drink, making antibiotics, killing pests, and even digestion of food. Pathogenic bacteria, on the other hand, are the main reason for diseases. To be able to differentiate between the helpful and harmful bacteria, scientists have come up with a scientific classification of these organisms.

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Classification of Bacteria of Medical Importance

The classification helps in identification of organisms according to groups. These groups contain organisms that share common characteristics and traits from other organisms in a different group. The classification of bacteria of medical importance has been carried out according to the ‘Gram reaction’ all these years. Gram reaction is a medical staining test named after Christian Gram who came up with the process in 1884. He found out that these organisms have the ability to retain the crystal violet iodine complex after treating them with organic solvents like alcohol and acetone.

Organisms that are Gram-positive retain the stain color and look purple or blue-black under bright field microbiology. Those that cannot retain the dye complex need to be stained with a counterstain like carbol fuchsin and are called Gram-negative bacteria. Along with the Gram reaction, scientists also use the shape of bacteria to classify them. There are different types of bacteria shapes, like cocci (round), bacilli (stick or rod-shaped), or spiral.

Scientific Classification of Bacteria Based on Bergy’s Manual

Bergy’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology is like the Holy Testament for microbiologists. This manual is the guiding light to identify bacterial species and understanding their characteristics. The manual was first published by David Hendricks Bergy in 1923, and helped in the classification based on their structure and functional characteristics. The following table contains the classification of bacteria by shape and function according to the Bergy’s Manual.

Kingdom Prokaryotae Division II -Bacteria Medically Important Bacterial Group Classification by Shape and Function
Part 1 Phototrophic bacteria These are aquatic bacteria that can produce carbohydrates from CO2 with the help of photosynthetic pigments
Part 2 Gliding bacteria These are rods that can move by gliding in a layer of slime these may form complex fruiting bodies
Part 3 Sheathed bacteria These are rods that are surrounded by a sheath of iron or manganese oxides some of these rods have flagella for movement.
Part 4 Budding and/or appendages bacteria This is diverse group of rods that can reproduce by forming buds or appendages
Part 5 Spirochetes These are slender, helically-coiled bacteria that move by rotation or flexion of the cell
Part 6 Spiral and curved bacteria These are helically curved rods that can move with a corkscrew-like motion
Part 7 Gram-negative aerobic rods and cocci These are rods and spheres that are aerobic Gram-negative bacteria
Part 8 Gram-negative facultatively anaerobic rods These are rods that are Gram-negative and can survive in the absence of oxygen
Part 9 Gram-negative anaerobic rods These are rods that are strictly anaerobic Gram-negative organisms
Part 10 Gram-negative cocci and coccobacilli These are spheres that are Gram-negative bacteria
Part 11 Gram-negative anaerobic cocci These are spheres that are strictly anaerobic Gram-negative organisms
Part 12 Chemolithotrophic bacteria These bacteria use nitrogen, sulfur, and iron compounds for their energy and structural components
Part 13 Methane-producing bacteria These are rods and spheres that obtain energy from carbohy­drates forming methane as an end product
Part 14 Gram-positive cocci These are spheres facultative Gram-positive organisms
Part 15 Endospore-forming rods and cocci These are rods and spheres that can form endospores during their life cycles
Part 16 Gram-positive as porogenous rods These are rod-shaped bacteria that do not form spores and give Gram-positive porogenous rods
Part 17 Actinomycetes and related organisms This is a very large group of aerobic and anaerobic rods
Part 18 The rickettsia These are small rod-shaped bacteria that are transmitted by arthropods, and can multiply only within a host cell that also includes chlamydiae
Part 19 The mycoplasmas These are very small, multi-shaped bacteria that lack a true cell wall

Classification of Bacteria Flowchart

The following is a flowchart that contains names of most of the bacterial species under the specific groups according to their Gram reaction.

Classification of Bacteria of Medical Importance that give Gram-positive Reaction
This classification was carried out in 1984 and places cocci, endospore-forming and non-sporing rods, mycobacteria, and non-filamentous actinomycetes in this group.

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Classification of Bacteria of Medical Importance that give Gram-negative Reaction
This classification was carried out in 1986 and placed spirochetes, spiral and curved, aerobic bacteria and facultatively aerobic rods, obligate anaerobic bacteria, aerobic and anaerobic cocci, sulfate and sulfur-reducing, rickettsias, clamydias, and mycoplasmas in this group.

The Kingdome Prokaryotae is divided into four divisions: Gracilicutes, Firmicutes, Tenericutes, Mendosicutes (Archeabacteria).

  • Nocardioform Actinomycetes
    Actinobispora
    Actinokineospora
    Actinopolyspora
    Amycolata
    Amycolatopsis
    Faenia(Micropolyspora)
    Gordona
    Intrasporangium
    Jonesia
    Kibdelosporangium
    Nocardia
    Nocardioides
    Oerskovia
    Promicromonospora
    Pseudoamycolata
    Pseudonocardia
    Rhodococcus
    Saccharomonospora
    Saccharopolyspora
    Terrabacter
    Tsukamurella
  • Actinomycetes With Multilocar Sporangia
    Dermatophilus
    Frankia
    Geodermatophilus
  • Actinoplanetes
    Actinoplanes
    Ampullariella
    Catelbatospora
    Dactylosporangium
    Micromonospora
    Pilimelia
  • Streptomyces and Related Genera
    Intrasporangium
    Kineosporia
    Sporichthya
    Streptomyces
    Streptoverticillium
  • Maduromycetes
    Actinomadura
    Microbispora
    Microtetraspora
    Planobispora
    Planomonospora
    Spirillospora
    Streptosporangium
  • Thermomonospora and Related Genera
    Actinosynnema
    Nocardiopsis
    Streptoalloteichus
    Thermomonospora
  • Thermoactinomycetes
    Thermoactinomyces
  • Other Actinomycete Genera
    Glycomyces
    Kibdelosporangium
    Kitasatosporia
    Saccarothrix
  • The Methanogens
    • Cell Walls With Pseudomurein
      • Methanobacteriales
        • Methanobacteriaceae
          • Methanobacterium
          • Methanobrevibacter
          • Methanothermus
          • Methanococcales
            • Methanococcaceae
              • Methanococcus
              • Methanococcaceae
                • Methanolacinia
                • Methanococcoides
                • Methanolobus
                • Methanothrix
                • Methanomicrobiaceae
                  • Methanomicrobium
                  • Methanogenium
                  • Methanospirillum
                  • Methanoplanus
                  • Methanocorpusculum
                  • Methanoculleus
                  • Methanohalobium
                  • Methanohalophilus
                  • Methanosarcina
                  • Methanosphaera
                  • Archaeoglobales
                    • Archaeoglobaceae
                      • Archaeoglobus
                      • Halobacteriales
                        • Halobacteriaceae
                          • Haloarcula
                          • Halobacterium
                          • Halococcus
                          • Haloferax
                          • Natronobacterium
                          • Natronococcus
                          • Thermoplasma
                          • Cocci, Optimum Growth Below pH4
                            • Desulfurolobus Metallosphaera
                            • Sulfolobaceae
                              • Acidianus
                              • Sulfolobus
                              • Pyrobaculum
                              • Thermococcaceae
                                • Thermofilum
                                • Thermoproteus
                                • Hyperthermus
                                • Staphylothermus
                                • Thermodiscus
                                • Desulfurococcaceae
                                  • Desulfurococcus
                                  • Pyrodictium
                                  • Thermococcaceae
                                    • Thermococcus
                                    • Pyrococcus
                                    • Spirochaetales
                                      • Spirochaetaceae
                                        • Borrelia
                                        • Cristispira
                                        • Spirochaeta
                                        • Treponema
                                        • Leptospira
                                        • Aerobic, Catalase-Positive Genera
                                          • Deinobacter
                                          • Deinococcus
                                          • Marinococcus
                                          • Micrococcus
                                          • Planococcus
                                          • Saccharococcus
                                          • Staphylococcus
                                          • Stomatococcus
                                          • Aerococcus Enterococcus
                                          • Gemella
                                          • Lactococcus
                                          • Leuconostoc
                                          • Melissococcus
                                          • Pediococcus
                                          • Streptococcus (Pyogenic Hemolytic Streptococci, Oral Streptococci,Enterococci, Lactic Acid Streptococci, Anaerobic Streptococci)
                                          • Trichococcus
                                          • Vagococcus
                                          • Coprococcus
                                          • Peptococcus
                                          • Peptostreptococcus
                                          • Ruminococcus
                                          • Sarcina
                                          • Spirosomaceae
                                            • Flectobacillus
                                            • Runella
                                            • Ancyclobacter
                                            • Brachyarcus
                                            • Cyclobacterium
                                            • Meniscus
                                            • Microcyclus
                                            • Pelosigma
                                            • Pseudomonadaceae
                                              • Frateuria
                                              • Pseudomonas
                                              • Xanthomonas
                                              • Zooglea
                                              • Azomonas
                                              • Azotobacter
                                              • Agrobacterium
                                              • Bradyrhizobium
                                              • Phyllobacterium
                                              • Rhizobium
                                              • Methylococcus
                                              • Methylomonas
                                              • Acetobacter
                                              • Gluconobacter
                                              • Halobacterium
                                              • Halococcus
                                              • Legionella
                                              • Acinetobacter
                                              • Kingella
                                              • Moraxella
                                              • Neisseria
                                              • Acidiphilium
                                              • Acidomonas
                                              • Acidothermus
                                              • Afipia
                                              • Agromonas
                                              • Alcaligenes
                                              • Alteromonas
                                              • Aminobacter
                                              • Aquaspirillum
                                              • Azorhizobium
                                              • Beijerinckia
                                              • Bordetella
                                              • Brucella
                                              • Chromohalobacter
                                              • Chryseomonas
                                              • Comoamonas
                                              • Cupriavidas
                                              • Deleya
                                              • Derxia
                                              • Ensifer
                                              • Erythrobacter
                                              • Flavimonas
                                              • Flavobacterium
                                              • Francisella
                                              • Halomonas
                                              • Hydrogenophaga
                                              • Janthinobacterium
                                              • Lampropedia
                                              • Marinobacter
                                              • Marinomonas
                                              • Mesophilobacter
                                              • Methylobacillus
                                              • Methylobacterium
                                              • Methylophaga
                                              • Methylophilus
                                              • Methylovorus
                                              • Morococcus
                                              • Oceanospirillum
                                              • Oligella
                                              • Paracoccus
                                              • Phenylobacterium
                                              • Psychrobacter
                                              • Rhizobacter
                                              • Roseobacter
                                              • Rugamonas
                                              • Serpens
                                              • Sinorhizobium
                                              • Sphingobacterium
                                              • Thermoleophilum
                                              • Thermomicrobium
                                              • Thermus
                                              • Variovorax
                                              • Volcaniella
                                              • Weeksella
                                              • Xanthobacter
                                              • Xylella
                                              • Xylophilus
                                              • Zoogloea
                                              • Enterobacteriaceae
                                                • Arsenophonus
                                                • Budvicia
                                                • Buttiauxella
                                                • Cedecea
                                                • Citrobacter
                                                • Edwardsiella
                                                • Enterobacter
                                                • Erwinia
                                                • Escherichia
                                                • Ewingella
                                                • Hafnia
                                                • Klebsiella
                                                • Kluyvera
                                                • Leclercia
                                                • Leminorella
                                                • Moellerella
                                                • Morganella
                                                • Obesumbacterium
                                                • Pantoea
                                                • Pragia
                                                • Proteus
                                                • Providencia
                                                • Rahnella
                                                • Salmonella
                                                • Serratia
                                                • Shigella
                                                • Tatumella
                                                • Xenorhabdus
                                                • Yersinia
                                                • Yokenella
                                                • Aeromonas
                                                • Enhydrobacter
                                                • Photobacterium
                                                • Plesiomonas
                                                • Vibrio
                                                • Actinobacillus
                                                • Haemophilus
                                                • Pasteurella
                                                • Calymmatobacterium
                                                • Cardiobacterium
                                                • Cedecea
                                                • Eikenella
                                                • Gardnerella (has thin, Gram-positive walls but stains as negative)
                                                • Kluyvera
                                                • Obesumbacterium
                                                • Rahnella
                                                • Streptobacillus
                                                • Tatumella
                                                • Xenorhabdus
                                                • Chromobacterium
                                                • Zymomonas
                                                • Bacteroidaceae
                                                  • Acetivibrio
                                                  • Acetoanaerobium
                                                  • Acetofilamentum
                                                  • Acetogenium
                                                  • Acetomicrobium
                                                  • Acetothermus
                                                  • Acidaminobacter
                                                  • Anaerobiospirillum
                                                  • Anaerorhabdus
                                                  • Anaerovibrio
                                                  • Bacteroides
                                                  • Butyrivibrio (has thin, Gram-positive walls but stains as negative)
                                                  • Centipeda
                                                  • Fervidobacterium
                                                  • Fibrobacter
                                                  • Fusobacterium
                                                  • Haloanaerobium
                                                  • Halobacteroides
                                                  • Ilyobacter
                                                  • Lachnospira (has thin, Gram-positive walls but stains as negative)
                                                  • Leptotrichia
                                                  • Malonomonas
                                                  • Megamonas
                                                  • Mitsuokella
                                                  • Oxalobacter
                                                  • Pectinatus
                                                  • Pelobacter
                                                  • Porphyromonas
                                                  • Prevotella
                                                  • Propionigenium
                                                  • Propionispira
                                                  • Rikenella
                                                  • Roseburia
                                                  • Ruminobacter
                                                  • Sebaldella
                                                  • Selenomonas
                                                  • Sporomusa
                                                  • Succinimonas
                                                  • Succinivibrio
                                                  • Syntrophobacter
                                                  • Syntrophosmonas
                                                  • Thermobacteroides
                                                  • Thermospipho
                                                  • Thermotoga
                                                  • Tissierella
                                                  • Wolinella
                                                  • Zymophilus
                                                  • Desulfobacter
                                                  • Desulfobacterium
                                                  • Desulfobulbus
                                                  • Desulfococcus
                                                  • Desulfomicrobium
                                                  • Desulfomonas
                                                  • Desulfomonile
                                                  • Desulfonema
                                                  • Desulfosarcina
                                                  • Desulfotomaculum (also endospore-forming)
                                                  • Desulfovibrio
                                                  • Desulfurella
                                                  • Desulfuromonas
                                                  • Thermodesulfobacterium
                                                  • Veillonellaceae
                                                    • Acidaminococcus
                                                    • Megasphaera
                                                    • Syntrophococcus
                                                    • Veillonella
                                                    • Rickettsiales
                                                      • Rickettsiaceae
                                                        • Cowdria
                                                        • Coxiella
                                                        • Ehrlichia
                                                        • Neorickettsia
                                                        • Rickettsia
                                                        • Rickettsiella
                                                        • Rochalimaea
                                                        • Wolbachia
                                                        • Bartonella
                                                        • Grahamella
                                                        • Aegyptianella
                                                        • Anaplasma
                                                        • Eperythrozoon
                                                        • Haemobartonella
                                                        • Chlamydiaceae
                                                          • Chlamydia
                                                          • Mycoplasmataceae
                                                            • Mycoplasma
                                                            • Ureaplasma
                                                            • Acholeplasma
                                                            • Spiroplasma
                                                            • Anaeroplasma
                                                            • Asteroleplasma
                                                            • Thermoplasma
                                                            • Endosymbionts of Protozoa
                                                              • Caedibacter
                                                              • Holospora
                                                              • Lyticum
                                                              • Pseudocaedibacter
                                                              • Tectibacter
                                                              • Blattabacterium
                                                              • Caedibacter
                                                              • Holospora
                                                              • Lyticum
                                                              • Pseudocaedibacter
                                                              • Tectibacter
                                                              • Blattabacterium
                                                              • Caedibacter
                                                              • Holospora
                                                              • Lyticum
                                                              • Pseudocaedibacter
                                                              • Tectibacter
                                                              • Mycobacteriaceae
                                                                • Mycobacterium
                                                                • Purple Sulfur Bacteria: Internal Sulfur Granules
                                                                  • Chromatiaceae
                                                                    • Amoebobacter
                                                                    • Chromatium
                                                                    • Lamprobacter
                                                                    • Lamprocystis
                                                                    • Thiocapsa
                                                                    • Thiocystis
                                                                    • Thiodictyon
                                                                    • Thiopedia
                                                                    • Thiospirillum
                                                                    • Ectothiorhodospiraceae
                                                                      • Ectothiorhodopsin
                                                                      • Ectothiorhodospira
                                                                      • Rhodobacter
                                                                      • Rhodyclus
                                                                      • Rhodomicrobium
                                                                      • Rhodopila
                                                                      • Rhodopseudomonas
                                                                      • Rhodospirillum
                                                                      • Heliobacillus
                                                                      • Heliobacterium
                                                                      • Anacalochloris
                                                                      • Chlorobium
                                                                      • Chloroherpeton
                                                                      • Pelodictyon
                                                                      • Prosthecochloris
                                                                      • Chloroflexus
                                                                      • Chloronema
                                                                      • Heliothrix
                                                                      • Oscillochloris
                                                                      • Erythrobacter
                                                                      • Cyanobacteria
                                                                        • Chroococcales
                                                                          • Chamaespiphon
                                                                          • Cyanothece
                                                                          • Gloeobacter
                                                                          • Gloeocapsa
                                                                          • Gloethece
                                                                          • Microcystis
                                                                          • Myxobaktron
                                                                          • Synechococcus
                                                                          • Synechocystis
                                                                          • Chroococcidiopsis
                                                                          • Dermocarpa
                                                                          • Dermocarpella
                                                                          • Myxosarcina
                                                                          • Pleurocapsa
                                                                          • Xenococcus
                                                                          • Nostocaceae
                                                                            • Anabaena
                                                                            • Aphanizomenon
                                                                            • Cylindrospermum
                                                                            • Nodularia
                                                                            • Nostoc
                                                                            • Scytonema
                                                                            • Calothrix
                                                                            • Chlorogloeopsis
                                                                            • Fischerella
                                                                            • Geitleria
                                                                            • Stigonema
                                                                            • Prochloraceae
                                                                              • Prochloron
                                                                              • Prochlorothrix
                                                                              • Nitrifying Bacteria
                                                                                • Nitrobacteraceae
                                                                                • Nitrobacter
                                                                                • Nitrococcus
                                                                                • Nitrospina
                                                                                • Nitrospira
                                                                                • Nitrosococcus
                                                                                • Nitrosolobus
                                                                                • Nitrosomonas
                                                                                • Nitrosospira
                                                                                • Nitrosovibrio
                                                                                • Acidiphilium
                                                                                • Macromonas
                                                                                • Thermothrix
                                                                                • Thiobacillus
                                                                                • Thiobacterium
                                                                                • Thiodendron
                                                                                • Thiomicrospira
                                                                                • Thiosphaera
                                                                                • Thiospira
                                                                                • Thiovulum
                                                                                • Hydrogenobacter
                                                                                • Siderocapsaceae
                                                                                  • Aquaspirillum
                                                                                  • Bilophococcus
                                                                                  • Gallionella (both iron-oxidizing and appendaged)
                                                                                  • Leptospirillum
                                                                                  • Metallogenium
                                                                                  • Naumaniella
                                                                                  • Ochrobium
                                                                                  • Siderocapsa
                                                                                  • Siderococcus
                                                                                  • Sulfobacillus
                                                                                  • Prosthecate Bacteria
                                                                                    • Ancalomicrobium
                                                                                    • Asticcacaulus*
                                                                                    • Caulobacter*
                                                                                    • Dichotomicrobium*
                                                                                    • Filomicrobium*
                                                                                    • Hirschia
                                                                                    • Hyphomicrobium*
                                                                                    • Hyphomonas*
                                                                                    • Labrys
                                                                                    • Pedomicrobium
                                                                                    • Prosthecobacter*
                                                                                    • Prosthecomicrobium
                                                                                    • Stella
                                                                                    • Verrucomicrobium*
                                                                                    • Gemmata
                                                                                    • Pirelulla
                                                                                    • Angulomicrobium
                                                                                    • Blastobacter
                                                                                    • Ensifer
                                                                                    • Gemmiger
                                                                                    • Isosphaera
                                                                                    • Planctomyces
                                                                                    • Cytophagales
                                                                                      • Cytophagaceae
                                                                                        • Capnocytophaga
                                                                                        • Chitinophaga
                                                                                        • Cytophaga
                                                                                        • Flexibacter
                                                                                        • Flexithrix
                                                                                        • Microscilla
                                                                                        • Sporocytophaga
                                                                                        • Thermonema
                                                                                        • Lysobacteriaceae
                                                                                          • Lysobacter
                                                                                          • Simonsiellaceae
                                                                                            • Alysiella
                                                                                            • Simonsiella
                                                                                            • Beggiatoales
                                                                                              • Beggiatoaceae
                                                                                                • Achromatium
                                                                                                • Beggiatoa
                                                                                                • Thioploca
                                                                                                • Thiospirillopsis
                                                                                                • Thiothrix
                                                                                                • Pelonemataceae
                                                                                                  • Achroonema
                                                                                                  • Desmanthus
                                                                                                  • Pelonema
                                                                                                  • Peloploca
                                                                                                  • Agitococcus
                                                                                                  • Desulfonema
                                                                                                  • Herpetosiphon
                                                                                                  • Isosphaera
                                                                                                  • Leucothrix
                                                                                                  • Saprospira
                                                                                                  • Toxothrix
                                                                                                  • Vitreoscilla
                                                                                                  • Archangiaceae
                                                                                                    • Archangium
                                                                                                    • Cystobacter
                                                                                                    • Melittangium
                                                                                                    • Stigmatella
                                                                                                    • Myxococcaceae
                                                                                                      • Myxococcus
                                                                                                      • Chondromyces
                                                                                                      • Nannocystis
                                                                                                      • Polyangium
                                                                                                      • Angiococcus
                                                                                                      • Corallococcus
                                                                                                      • Haploangium
                                                                                                      • Sorangium

                                                                                                      You will find there are many reference journals as well as books that will provide you with further information related to scientific classification of bacteria. Hope the above paragraphs have helped solved some of your queries and doubts related to bacterial classification.

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                                                                                                      Aerobic bacteria require oxygen to perform cellular respiration and derive energy to survive. In short, aerobic bacteria grows and multiplies only in the presence of oxygen. To know more about&hellip


                                                                                                      Figure 2 Potential applications of phylogenetics

                                                                                                      Classification: Phylogenetics based on sequence data provides us with more accurate descriptions of patterns of relatedness than was available before the advent of molecular sequencing. Phylogenetics now informs the Linnaean classification of new species.

                                                                                                      Forensics: Phylogenetics is used to assess DNA evidence presented in court cases to inform situations, e.g. where someone has committed a crime, when food is contaminated, or where the father of a child is unknown.

                                                                                                      Identifying the origin of pathogens: Molecular sequencing technologies and phylogenetic approaches can be used to learn more about a new pathogen outbreak. This includes finding out about which species the pathogen is related to and subsequently the likely source of transmission. This can lead to new recommendations for public health policy.

                                                                                                      Conservation: Phylogenetics can help to inform conservation policy when conservation biologists have to make tough decisions about which species they try to prevent from becoming extinct.

                                                                                                      Bioinformatics and computing: Many of the algorithms developed for phylogenetics have been used to develop software in other fields.

                                                                                                      Coming soon…? With the advent of newer, faster sequencing technologies, it is now possible to take a sequencing machine out to the field and sequence species of interest in situ. Phylogenetics is needed to add biological meaning to the data.


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                                                                                                      Three domains or five kingdoms are two types of classification systems to categorise living organisms. The key difference between kingdom and domain is that the kingdom is one of the five major groups of living organisms while the domain is one of the three taxonomic categories of living organisms above the kingdom level. Thus, domain is a category above the kingdom level. Accordingly, there are three domains namely bacteria, archaea and eukarya. On the other hand, the kingdom is a major category of living organisms below the domain level. There are five kingdoms namely monera, protista, fungi, plantae and animalia. Hence, this is another difference between kingdom and domain.


                                                                                                      Why does the difference between direct and indirect cost matter?

                                                                                                      To sum up, direct costs are expenses that directly go into producing goods or providing services, while indirect costs are general business expenses that keep you operating. But, why does the difference matter?

                                                                                                      Direct vs. indirect expenses for income statements

                                                                                                      Knowing which costs are direct vs. indirect helps you with recording expenses in your books and on your business income statement.

                                                                                                      Your income statements break down your business’s profits and losses during a period. When creating your income statement, you have different line items for income and expenses like revenue, cost of goods sold (COGS), and operating expenses.

                                                                                                      You wouldn’t record an indirect cost under COGS on the income statement. Instead, you should list indirect costs under business expenses.

                                                                                                      Direct cost vs. indirect cost for taxes

                                                                                                      When it comes to claiming tax deductions, you need to know the difference between direct vs. indirect costs.

                                                                                                      Why? Because the IRS says so. According to the IRS, you must separate your business expenses from the expenses you use to determine your cost of goods sold (e.g., direct labor costs).

                                                                                                      You must subtract your COGS from your business’s gross receipts to figure out your gross profit on your business tax return. When you classify an expense in your COGS, you can’t deduct it as a business expense.

                                                                                                      Business expenses like rent and employee wages are just some of the deductions you can claim. But to do so, you need to have accurate and detailed records to back up your claims.

                                                                                                      Misclassifying your direct and indirect expenses when claiming deductions could cause you to come under IRS scrutiny. Not to mention, failing to break down your costs could cause you to miss out on a tax deduction.

                                                                                                      Pricing products with direct cost vs. indirect cost

                                                                                                      To run your business, you must take all expenses into account. Doing so is key to budgeting. But, what about pricing products? How can you apply your direct and direct costs to an individual product or service?

                                                                                                      Sure, you can look at your cost of goods sold to see how much it costs to produce a good. However, COGS only show you direct costs, not indirect ones.

                                                                                                      To find out how much it truly costs you to produce a product or perform a service, you might also consider an activity-based costing (ABC) system.

                                                                                                      With the ABC system, you can allocate your overhead costs to certain activities, and thus products, to get a more specific picture of your cost by product.

                                                                                                      Searching for a better way to track all of your business’s expenses? Patriot’s online accounting software makes it easy for business owners to track expenses and income. And, we offer free, USA-based support. Get your free trial today!

                                                                                                      This article has been updated from its original publication date of March 22, 2018.

                                                                                                      This is not intended as legal advice for more information, please click here.


                                                                                                      Why are vertebrae, specifically, so important in classification? - Biology

                                                                                                      All the bones in the human body together are called the skeletal system. The skeletal system provides strength and rigidity to our body so we don't just flop around like jellyfish. We have 206 bones in our body. Each bone has a function. Some bones offer protection to softer more fragile parts of body. For example, the skull protects the brain and the rib cage protects our heart and lungs. Other bones, like bones in our legs and arms, help us to move around by providing support for our muscles.

                                                                                                      The skeletal system includes more than just bones. It also includes tendons, ligaments, and cartilage. Tendons attach our bones to muscles so we can move around. Ligaments attach bones to other bones.

                                                                                                      What are bones made of?

                                                                                                      Around 70 percent of your bones are not living tissue, but hard minerals like calcium. The outside of the bone is called the cortical bone. It's hard, smooth, and solid. Inside the cortical bone is a porous, spongy bone material called the trabecular or concellous bone. This bone is lighter allowing for the bone itself to be lighter and easier for us to move around. It also allows room for blood vessels and makes our bones slightly bendable. This way our bones won't break so easily. At the center of bones is a softer substance called marrow.

                                                                                                      There are two types of bone marrow, yellow and red. Yellow bone marrow is mostly fat cells. Red marrow is important because this is where our body produces red and white blood cells. When we are born, all of our bones have red marrow. By the time we are adults about half of our bones have red marrow.

                                                                                                      Our bones come together and connect at special places called joints. Your knees and elbows are joints, for example. Many joints have a large range of movement and are called ball and socket joints. The shoulder and hip are ball and socket joints. Joints have a smooth, durable material called cartilage. Cartilage, together with fluid, allows bones to rub against each other smoothly and not wear out.

                                                                                                      How do broken bones heal?

                                                                                                      Your body can heal broken bones all on its own. Of course, a doctor will help it along, making sure that the bone heals straight and properly using a cast or sling. A broken bone will heal in stages. When it first breaks there will be blood around it and it will form a sort of scab over the broken portions. Next, tougher tissue will start to grow over the broken area called collagen. The collagen, together with cartilage, will bridge the gap between the two sides of the break. This bridge will continue to transform and harden until the bone is healed. It can often take months for bones to heal back to normal. While the bone is healing, it can't take the stress of a normal bone, which is why people use crutches and slings to take the pressure off the bone while it's healing.


                                                                                                      Why fetal pigs are good dissection specimens

                                                                                                      1. The fetal pig is a mammal, like humans. Nearly all major structures
                                                                                                      are the same or similar in anatomy. While there are some interesting differences
                                                                                                      between pigs and humans (see some comments under the ‘hints and tips’ page),
                                                                                                      the most important things are very similar.

                                                                                                      2. Fetal pigs are not bred for the purpose of dissection. They are a
                                                                                                      by-product of the pork food industry. (1)

                                                                                                      3. Fetal pigs are not killed for the purpose of dissection. Those that
                                                                                                      are not used for education will be used for fertilizer production or discarded.
                                                                                                      (1)

                                                                                                      3. Most people do not think of pigs as ‘pets’.

                                                                                                      4. Fetal pigs are relatively inexpensive. Even in the extra large size,
                                                                                                      where structures are well developed, they can be obtained for about 1/3
                                                                                                      the cost of a similarly sized cat.

                                                                                                      Educational advantages of dissection

                                                                                                      1. Dissection is a hands-on, investigatory kind of activity for students.
                                                                                                      Historically, dissection has been the principle tool of investigation for
                                                                                                      anatomists(2). Dissection allows students to “test the thruthfulness”
                                                                                                      of what they see in books.(3)

                                                                                                      2. Dissection engages students in “observational and kinesthetic
                                                                                                      learning that instills a recognition an appreciation for the three dimensional
                                                                                                      structure of the animal body, the interconnections between organs and organ
                                                                                                      systems, and the uniqueness of biological material.”(2)

                                                                                                      3. Dissection impresses on students the normal variation that is present
                                                                                                      in the natural world. No two fetal pigs, even though they are perfectly
                                                                                                      normal, will look exactly the same. In fact, to do well on practicals, students
                                                                                                      MUST looks at several examples of each structure in different animals. Occasionally,
                                                                                                      quite significant anatomical variations (anomalies) will be noticed. Most
                                                                                                      would function perfectly normally. This helps to develop “students’
                                                                                                      powers of observation.”(3)

                                                                                                      (1) “Everything you wanted to know about fetal pigs but didn’t know
                                                                                                      who to ask”, Nebraska Scientific brochure, 3823 Leavenworth Street,
                                                                                                      Omaha, Nebraska 68105-1180, phone 800-228-7117.

                                                                                                      (2) “Human Anatomy & Physiology Society Position Statement on
                                                                                                      Animal Use”, HAPS News, November 1995, page 12.

                                                                                                      (3) “Dissection”, by John Richard Schrock, The Kansas School
                                                                                                      Naturalist
                                                                                                      , Vol. 36, no. 3, Feb. 1990. Emporia State University, Emporia
                                                                                                      Kansas.

                                                                                                      Fetal Pig Dissection Guide

                                                                                                      113 pages, 63 illustrations, 33 medical notes. Coil bound.
                                                                                                      Last updated Sept., 2004


                                                                                                      Watch the video: Η αντιμετώπιση των καταγμάτων της σπονδυλικής στήλης (August 2022).