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Taxonomy: Categorising Collembola

Taxonomy: Categorising Collembola


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Observe: In some rows (Order,Family), the third column reveals a discerning physical characteristic or body type (Elongate,Slender).

What are the discerning characteristics, missing from the other rows (Superfamily,Subfamily,Genus,Species)?

Basically I want this knowledge so I can work towards being able to separate, categorize (catalogue) and/or identify new or unknown species, etc.


Imagery

Exhibit A Entomobrya unostrigata
(aka. Cotton Springtail)


Taxonomy

Domain | Eukaryota | (Eukaryotes) Kingdom | Animalia | (Animals) Phylum | Arthropoda | (Arthropods) Subphylum | Hexapoda | (Hexapods) Class | Collembola | (Springtails) Order | Entomobryomorpha | (Elongate) Superfamily | Entomobryoidea | Family | Entomobryidae | (Slender) Subfamily | Entomobryinae | Genus | Entomobrya | Species | Unostrigata |

Sources: Image; photographed by myself. Text; transcribed from my own hand-written notes. Most likely (originally) gleaned and adapted from publicly available, online information. It may contain errors or inaccuracies. Resources: Check out Bugguide.net and Collembola.org.


Reprise

Okay, the question has been put on hold, preventing answers from being posted (very irritating and obstructionist policy for those seeking answers, I might add). So I will attempt to clarify.


Exhibit B Orchesella cincta


Exhibit C Willowsia nigromaculata


Exhibit D Entomobrya multifasciata


Exhibit E Seira bipunctata


The diversity of these specimens; span not only multiple species, but multiple genera. Yet, despite the fact that they each exhibit relatively distinctive combinations of patterns and colours across their cuticle (epidermis, surface epithelium), setae, scales, etc. they all look pretty much identical.

This seems to be the equivalent of declaring a homo sapiens of African descent; a different species to a homo sapiens of Irish descent, on account of their superficial aesthetic differences (most notably regarding melanin; the pigments that determine the colours of a human's skin, hair[s], and iride[s] (eye[s]), and so on). Which, at first seems absurd. But for those of you who disagree, observe the differences between (for instance): Exhibit X vs Exhibit B & Exhibit Y vs Exhibit E. Similar variations between individuals of the same species are not uncommon in the least.

Thus, my question: What are the discerning taxonomical differences between various species and genera of the Arthropoda known as Collembola (aka Springtails)?


Exhibit X Orchesella cincta


Exhibit Y Seira bipunctata


The third column doesn't contain distinguishing characteristics at all -- they are the first word of the vernacular (or common) names for those groups on Bug Guide. Specifically, Bug Guide lists order Entomobryomorpha as Elongate-bodied Springtails, and family Entomobryidae as Slender Springtails -- so I think you're just looking at truncated data that's misleading you!

What you're looking for a taxonomic or identification key, which gives you set of yes-or-no questions that will allow you to identify an individual to a particular taxonomic group. Know Your Insect has a taxonomic key that allows you to identify insects to order Collembola, which provides exactly the sort of distinguishing characteristics you're looking for: "This illustration shows two characteristic features of members of this order: the collophore (center), a tube-like structure used to secrete fluids; and the furculum (lower left arrow)." Note that this resource refers to this group as an order, not a class -- that's not uncommon among different taxonomic resources. Wikipedia refers to this group as subclass Collembola!

Unfortunately, it doesn't look like there's a freely available taxonomic key for species within this group, unless you buy a specialized guide like A Key to the Collembola (Springtails) of Britain and Ireland.


Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus ( / l ɪ ˈ n iː ə s , l ɪ ˈ n eɪ ə s / [1] [2] 23 May [note 1] 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné [3] (Swedish pronunciation: [ˈkɑːɭ fɔn lɪˈneː] ( listen ) ), was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". [4] Many of his writings were in Latin, and his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus (after 1761 Carolus a Linné).

Linnaeus was born in Råshult, the countryside of Småland, in southern Sweden. He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published the first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala. In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, while publishing several volumes. He was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe at the time of his death.

Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message: "Tell him I know no greater man on earth." [5] Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one among the no longer living who has influenced me more strongly." [5] Swedish author August Strindberg wrote: "Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist." [6] Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum (Prince of Botanists) and "The Pliny of the North". [7] He is also considered as one of the founders of modern ecology. [8]

In botany and zoology, the abbreviation L. is used to indicate Linnaeus as the authority for a species' name. [9] In older publications, the abbreviation "Linn." is found. Linnaeus's remains constitute the type specimen for the species Homo sapiens following the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, since the sole specimen that he is known to have examined was himself. [note 2]


Abstract

Collembola are among the most abundant, diverse and functionally important groups of soil animals. Collembolans inhabit different litter and soil layers and their food objects are intimately related to their habitat. Morphological differences that separate high rank taxa of collembolans have clear functional meaning in relation to life style and habitat requirements (including position in the soil profile). However, no study has tested the hypothesis that the species within the major functional groups also differ in terms of trophic positions. This hypothesis was tested for the first time using stable isotope analysis. We compiled original and published data on the stable isotope composition of 82 collembolan species in temperate forest ecosystems. The δ 13 C and δ 15 N values of collembolans were found related to their life forms, reflecting a shift in available food objects across different habitat layers and matching the vertical isotopic gradient of soil organic matter. The trophic niche of species varied among different collembolan orders and families, indicating a pronounced phylogenetic signal and supporting the trophic niche conservatism hypothesis. Considering stable isotope compositions, as well as the taxonomic identity and life form of species, we outlined four collembolan functional guilds that use different types of food and perform different ecosystem functions.


Taxonomy, distribution and trait data sets of Japanese Collembola

Takuo Hishi, Shiiba Research Forest, Kyushu University, 949 Ohkawauchi, Shiiba-son, Miyazaki 868-0402, Japan.

Department of Forest Entomology, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Ibaraki, Japan

College of Economy and Environmental Policy, Okinawa International University, Okinawa, Japan

Field Science Center, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Japan

Shikoku Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Kochi, Japan

Shiiba Research Forest, Kyushu University, Miyazaki, Japan

Takuo Hishi, Shiiba Research Forest, Kyushu University, 949 Ohkawauchi, Shiiba-son, Miyazaki 868-0402, Japan.

Department of Forest Entomology, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Ibaraki, Japan

College of Economy and Environmental Policy, Okinawa International University, Okinawa, Japan

Field Science Center, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Japan

Shikoku Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Kochi, Japan

Present address: Motohiro Hasegawa, Department of Environmental Systems Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, 1–3 Tatara Miyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610–0394, Japan.

Funding information: Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grant/Award Number: 17H01912


Wonder and wondering

All forms of science are powered by a sense of wonder. Without it, there would be no passion or drive to discover anything new. Dry, jaded cynicism has never found a new plant or planet. Find someone who studies slime moulds or sub molecular particles and ask them why they do what they do. You'll see them getting as excited as a child in a tree house while they tell you.
I have biologist friends who, between them, study moss, beetles, mites, slime moulds, millipedes, and Collembola, like me. Everyone lights up when conversation is brought around to their pet passion/obsession. It's both endearing and delightful.

Not surprisingly, I love Collembola with all the happy single-mindedness and emotion I can muster. I find them eternally fascinating and beautiful, and I can't think of anything more fun than going around the world, looking at them. When I've done public talks, I've had to be careful how I discuss them as I can choke up. It's emotional stuff.

However, over the years I've had to admit that the other tiny animals I've seen while I'm crawling about in the leaf litter are actually pretty interesting too. So even though it'll always be Collembola that are closest to my heart, this website includes most of the other wonderful tiny stuff that lives in and around soil too.

I'm an amateur, never having studied biology at a university. I've built my clumsy knowledge base through years of researching- reading scientific papers, clocking thousands of hours in the field, taking photographs and specimens and observing the behaviour of thousands of different species around the world. It’s been life-changing.


Taxonomy: Categorising Collembola - Biology

Peter F. Bellinger (), Department of Biology, California State University, Northridge, CA 91330, USA
Kenneth A. Christiansen (), Department of Biology, Grinnell College, PO Box V3, Grinnell, IA 50112-0806, USA
Frans Janssens, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, B-2020, Belgium

Fig.1. Collembola habitus
(photographs 2000-2004 © Hopkin, S. (1)
2002 © Baquero, E. & Jordana, R. (2)
2004,2007 © Henderickx, H. (4)
2003 © Pettersson, B. (5)
2003 © Schoenherr, J. (6)
2004 © Baquero, E. (7)
2004 © Gielen, K. (8)
2004 © Vuijlsteke, M. (9)
2005 © Domene, X. (10)
2005 © Cheung, D. & Schmidt, J. (11)
2005 © Hall, K. (12)
2006-2007 © Stevens, M. (13)
2006 © Maddison, D.R. (14)
2008 © Ng, M. (15)
2008 © Baas, A.H. (16). )
Citation suggested:
Bellinger, P.F., Christiansen, K.A. & Janssens, F. 1996-2021.
Checklist of the Collembola of the World. http://www.collembola.org

Etymology: Lubbock (1870) proposed for the division of the Thysanura comprised in the Linnaean genus Podura the term Collembola, "as indicating the existence of a projection or mammalia enabling the creature to attach or glue itself to the body on which it stands" (Lubbock, 1873:36) (from colla (Latin), from kolla (Greek): glue from embolon (Greek): that what has been thrown into something, e.g. a wedge, a ram, a plug from emballein (Greek): to throw into, to insert).
This ventral projection, the ventral tube or collophore, plays an extremely important role in the fluid and electrolyte balance. The eversible vesicles of the ventral tube may also be used as a source of 'grooming' fluid and for adhering to smooth surfaces (after Hopkin, 1997:48-49). In Anurida, that do not have a furca, the eversible vesicles of the ventral tube may adhere to the surface waterfilm on which they can walk and deform it in such a way that it is springloaded when the waterfilm is released the animal is launched upwards into the air (Bush & Hu, 2006:351). --> -->

Fig.2. Schematic diagram of the poduromorph body structure
(lateral view).
Modified after Potapov, M. in Babenko, A. (1988).
External anatomy and morphology: The body of Collembola basically comprises three tagmata, a head capsule, a thorax with three segments, and an abdomen with five segments and a terminal periproct. Thoracic and abdominal segments may be indistinct and may give the body a more globular appearance. The head bears two antennae, two optional postantennal organs, two optional composed eyes and the mouthparts. The antennae principally consist of four articulations. Antennal articulations may be subdivided or annulated. Each composed eye consists of maximum eight ommatidia. The mouthparts comprise the labrum, a pair of mandibulae, a pair of maxillae, the hypopharynx and the bipartite labium. The frontal labrum, the ventral labium and two lateral oral folds enclose the other mouthparts in the buccal cavity (entognathy). Each thoracic segment bears ventrally a pair of walking limbs. Each limb is made up of an epicoxa, subcoxa, coxa, trochanter, femur, tibia and footcomplex, the latter comprising the distal part of the tibia having a large outer lamellate unguis and bearing a small inner unguicular tubercle with optional unguiculus or empodium (Janssens, 1999-2010). The anterior abdominal segment bears a ventral tube or collophore having two eversible vesicles. The third abdominal segment ventrally optionally bears the retinaculum, a forked appendage that locks the springloaded furca in place underneath the ventrum. The fourth abdominal segment ventrally optionally bears the furca. The furca comprises the basal manubrium, bearing two arms, each of them comprising a dens and a mucro. The genital orifice opens at the ventral side of the fifth abdominal segment. The anus opens terminally at the posterior abdominal periproct. The linea ventralis is a linear cuticular ventral groove that runs between the base of the labium and the collophore (Hopkin, 1997:60).
Some discussion on morphological issues:
Tagmatisation in arthropodans is not monophyletic. Assuming a primitive marine benthic crustacean discovering the potentials of terrestrial habitats, tagmatisation is almost a natural process, since its main effect is the localisation and specialisation of the locomotory system. Improving the locomotory system is imperative for successfully invading terrestrial habitats. On the other hand, cephalisation is just as important. Both processes led to tripartite body division in arthropods living in terrestrial habitats. In marine or freshwater habitats, tripartite tagmatisation has no special advantadge.
Fig.2a. Composed eye (left)
Dicyrtomina saundersi
2007 © Cornwall, N.J.
--> Fig.2a. Dicyrtomina saundersi
Left composed eye
2007 © Krebs, C.
Fig.2a1. Dicyrtomina saundersi
Projected maxillae heads
2015.03.12 © Phillips, E.
The collembolan composed eye, with maximum 8 single eyes designated as A to H (fig.2a), is derived from the compound eye of early crustaceans (Paulus, 1972).
Entognathy in Hexapoda s.l. is not monophyletic. The collembolan entognathy might be developed as an adaptation to terrestrial habitats. Entognathy in crustaceans is rare. There are some indications of an entognathic tendence in terrestrial Amphipoda. This is interesting, because it might show that entognathy is an evolutionary advantadge during the process of invading terrestrial systems. Amphipoda are a more recent type of crustaceans: oldest fossils are from the Eocene. So, they might be still in the phase where early collembolan ancestors were in the preDevonian times.
The postantennal organs are the remnants of the 2nd pair of antennae of its ancestral crustacean. The postantennal organs might be the specialised sensory organ of the ancestral 2nd antennal apex that remained while the 2nd antenna shaft itself reduced (Lawrence, 1999).

To be completed.

Fig.2aa. Kiss of death. Entomobrya muscorum predated by Hybotidae. From Czechia. 2007.08.11 © Krásenský, P.
Fig.2ab. Katiannidae. Spermatophores. From France. 2010.11.22 © Lebeaux, P.
Biology: Development is direct with adults differing from juveniles in proportion, size, pigment (usually juveniles are paler), and the absence of a genital opening (Christiansen in Dindal, 1990:967). In some genera a diapause occurs which may be associated with regressive modification of mouthparts and digestive system and even striking external modification of cuticle and the development of spines (ecomorphosis) (Christiansen in Dindal, 1990:967-968). Collembola moult throughout life with instars ranging from four to more than 50 (Christiansen in Dindal, 1990:968). Collembola are polyphagous, in general some species are saprophagous (decomposed plants), coprophagous (excrements), necrophagous (cadavers), mycetophagous (fungi), bacteriophagous (soil micro-organisms) (Thibaud, 1970:103) or pollinophagous (pollen). Some are predacious. In Sinella coeca and Sinella pouadensis, the adults eat their own eggs, even when there is enough food supply (Thibaud, 1970:132).
Collembola have separate sexes and indirect sperm transfer (Hopkin 1997:134). Spermatophores (fig.2ab) are deposited by the males on the substrate (Christiansen in Dindal, 1990:968), or placed directly on the female genital opening (Hopkin 1997:134). A variety of mechanisms have evolved to ensure successful 'capture' of this spermatophore by the female (Christiansen in Dindal, 1990:968 Hopkin 1997:134).

Fig.P. Ceratophysella sp. Predated by Aranea. From Belgium. 2020.02.16 © Huskens, M.-L.
Fig.P2. Ptenothrix sp. Predated by Bdellidae. From the USA. 2020.12.28 © Pearson, R.R.
Predation. Predators are represented by species of Turbellaria such as Phagocata, Chilopoda, Opilionidae, Japygidae, Arachnida such as Acari (Erythraeoidea from Lithuania, Bdellidae from the UK, from the USA, undefined mite from the UK), Aranea (e.g. Salticidae such as Hentzia palmarum or Gen. spec. from the UK or Gen. spec. from the USA, or Ballus chalybeius from the UK, or Naphrys pulex from the USA, or Linyphiidae from the UK or Paidiscura pallens from the UK), and Gen. spec. from Belgium), Pseudoscorpiones (after Thibaud, 1970:105) (such as Neobisium muscorum from Belgium) furthermore by Insecta such as Hemiptera, Coleoptera larvae, Coleoptera: Pselaphinae, Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Coleoptera: Rhyzobius litura, Dolichopodidae ( from the UK, from Sweden, from the USA:South Carolina, from the USA:Alaska), Hybotidae, and Formicidae ( from the UK, from France).

Fig.3b. Podura aquatica and Sminthurides aquaticus, typically found on the surface of stagnant freshwaters. 2007.04.01 © Cornwall, N.J.
Ecology: Collembola are soil and litter dwelling, preferring wet or damp surroundings. Collembolans inhabit soil and leaf litter, although some species move actively over the surfaces of bark and flowers in daylight. They may be found in moss, under stones, in caves, in ant nests and termite nests but also in the intertidal zone on the coast, on the surfaces of lakes and ponds or snow fields of glaciers. Collembolans are major components of terrestrial ecosystems (and particularly significant members of the soil communities), constituting a significant proportion of the animal biomass and are thus frequently and easily found. In forest soils they can reach densities of 200 to 1800 individuals per dm 3 , densities only surpassed by the acarian soil population (Handschin, 1955).
Abiotic factors: In Hypogastruridae, the development is impacted as follows: 1. the lethal temperatures are -4°C and 28°C, 2. the optimum temperature range is 9°C to 12°C, 3. the hygrometric optimum is 98-100% relative humidity 4. the lethal hygrometric minimun is 93% relative humidity (Thibaud, 1970:161-173).

Anthropological perspective: Collembola can be pests principally by virtue of their presence in the home. But in many cases, the Collembola are just annoying 'guests', a nuisance, rather than infestations causing a disease. The infestations are classified as domestic infestations (Collembola found in houses), incidental human infestations (infestations through pot plants in the bedroom, infestations by malfunctioning pooter), human infestations not associated with dermatitis and human infestations associated with dermatitis. In addition, one can also consider the delusional infestations (psychotic infestations) and the infestations due to 'sample contamination' (clinical errors, laboratory errors).

Phylogeny: Handlirsch (1908) considers Collembola as a more or less recent group of insects with an extreme specialisation. He considers them as forms with a retrograde development reaching maturity while in a larval state. (cited from Handschin, 1955:41,45).
Based on the discovery of the ca 400 million years old Devonian fossil collembolan Rhyniella praecursor, and the striking resemblance it shows with extant collembolan species, Tillyard (1928) concludes that Collembola are primary, ancestral, and archaic terrestrial arthropodans (cited from Handschin, 1955:41,49).
Gullan & Cranston (1994:192-194) consider Collembola as the sistergroup of Insecta + Diplura, grouped with Protura into Hexapoda.
Janssens & Lawrence (2002-2012) propose that Collembola are highly specialised terrestrial Crustacea, that have reached their evolutionary climax already in the Devonian, when they dominated most terrestrial habitats. The terrestrial competition between Collembola and early Insecta might have triggered the latter to develop wings to become 'masters in the sky' in the Carboniferous.
A phylogeny, applying the principle of total evidence, using molecular and morphological characters, strongly supports the monophyly of Pancrustacea (= Crustacea & Hexapoda) (Giribet, Edgecombe & Wheeler, 2001:160).
Molecular phylogeny of the arthropods provide support for a monophyletic Hexapoda/Branchiopoda clade (Regier & Shultz, 1997:902,911). Based on mitochondrial data, Lavrov et al. (2004) recover an (Insecta, (Branchiopoda, Malacostraca)) clade and a (Collembola, Maxillopoda) clade, which is confirmed by Cook et al. (2005) (Cook, Yue & Akam, 2005:1301).
Physiological data show that Collembola evolved directly from marine ancestors: haemolymph with high osmotic pressures and mainly composed of inorganic salts (Little, 1983, 1990 cited from D'Haese, 2003:583). So early crustaceans must have been adapted from marine habitats in the Cambrium to terrestrial soil habitats in the Devonian. Possibly, Collembola are derived from a benthic marine maxillopod that explored the potentials of terrestrial soil habitats.

Systematics: The taxonomic hierarchy is mainly based on Bretfeld (1994, 1999), D'Haese (2002:1148), and Deharveng (2004:427). The systematics of the higher taxa that is presented here is in line with some of the more 'recent' opinions. Collembola are not considered as being Insecta but as a taxonomic group with the same rank (class). Note that also Protura and Diplura are currently classified as separate classes.
In an attempt to organise a combination in kind of harmony between two by definition incompatible classification schools - the Linnean school that uses a static, hierarchical system with emphasis on the ranking of taxa and the cladistic school that uses a dynamic, evolutionary system with emphasis on the relationship between the taxa - the classification used here tries to map the more recent cladistic system onto the conventional Linnean classification and ranking system. Note that it will never be possible to combine both systems in a 100% compatible way. In other words: different opinions and thus classifications will continue to popup in the papers.
Hexapoda Blainville, 1816. The finding of the reciprocal paraphyly of Hexapoda and Crustacea suggests an evolutionary scenario in which the acquisition of the hexapod condition may have occurred several times independently in lineages descending from different crustacean-like ancestors, possibly as a consequence of the process of terrestrialisation (Carapelli, Liò, Nardi, van der Wath & Frati, 2007). Although found paraphyletic based on recent molecular studies, Hexapoda is conveniantly maintained in the current taxonomic hierarchy untill the disagreements between molecular and morphological analyses have been resolved.
Apterygota Lang, 1889 (= Archaeognatha, Zygentoma, Diplura, Collembola and Protura) is considered as being an artificial assemblage of paraphyletic taxa (Moen & Ellis, 1984) and therefore not accepted anymore as a valid formal taxon by the cladistic school of systematists (Hopkin, 1997:19) (Bach de Roca, Gaju-Ricart & Compte-Sart, 1999:393).
Ellipura Börner, 1910 (= Collembola and Protura) is not a monophyletic group (Bach de Roca, Gaju-Ricart & Compte-Sart, 1999:393) and therefore not accepted in this classification.
Superregnum Eucarya Woese, Kandler & Wheelis, 1990

Regnum Animalia Linnæus, 1758

Subregnum Eumetazoa Butschli, 1910

Superphylum Ecdysozoa Aguinaldo AMA, Turbeville JM, Lindford LS, Rivera MC, Garey JR, Raff RA & Lake JA, 1997


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Carapelli, A., Frati, F., Fanciulli, P.P. and Dallai, R. (1995) Genetic differentiation of six sympatric species of Isotomurus (Collembola, Isotomidae)is there any difference in their microhabitat preference? Eur. J. Soil Biol. 31, 87–99.

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Research output : Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review

T1 - New records and new species of springtails (Collembola: Entomobryidae, Paronellidae) from lava tubes of the Galápagos Islands (Ecuador).

T2 - Entomobryidae, Paronellidae) from lava tubes of the Galápagos Islands (Ecuador)

AU - Toulkeridis, Theofilos

N1 - Publisher Copyright: © Aron D. Katz et al.

N2 - The Collembola fauna of the Galápagos Islands is relatively unexplored with only thirty-five reported species. Entomobryoidea, the most diverse superfamily of Collembola, is underrepresented, with only five species reported from the Galápagos. Here we present the findings of the first survey of Collembola from Galápagos lava tube caves, providing a significant update to the total number of entomobryoid Collembola species reported from the Galápagos Islands. Collections made during a March 2014 expedition to study lava tubes of the islands yielded new records for seven species of Entomobryoidea, including four genera not previously reported from the Galápagos Islands: Coecobrya, Entomobrya, Heteromurus, and Salina. As a result, three new species (Entomobrya darwini Katz, Soto-Adames & Taylor, sp. n., Pseudosinella vulcana Katz, Soto-Adames & Taylor, sp. n., and Pseudosinella stewartpecki Katz, Soto-Adames & Taylor, sp. n.) are described and new diagnoses are provided for Heteromurus (Heteromurtrella) nitens Yosii, 1964, Lepidocyrtus nigrosetosus Folsom, 1927 and Pseudosinella intermixta (Folsom, 1924). Lepidocyrtus leleupi Jacquemart, 1976 is synonymized with L. nigrosetosus. An updated checklist of all species within the superfamily Entomobryoidea reported from the Galápagos Islands is provided.

AB - The Collembola fauna of the Galápagos Islands is relatively unexplored with only thirty-five reported species. Entomobryoidea, the most diverse superfamily of Collembola, is underrepresented, with only five species reported from the Galápagos. Here we present the findings of the first survey of Collembola from Galápagos lava tube caves, providing a significant update to the total number of entomobryoid Collembola species reported from the Galápagos Islands. Collections made during a March 2014 expedition to study lava tubes of the islands yielded new records for seven species of Entomobryoidea, including four genera not previously reported from the Galápagos Islands: Coecobrya, Entomobrya, Heteromurus, and Salina. As a result, three new species (Entomobrya darwini Katz, Soto-Adames & Taylor, sp. n., Pseudosinella vulcana Katz, Soto-Adames & Taylor, sp. n., and Pseudosinella stewartpecki Katz, Soto-Adames & Taylor, sp. n.) are described and new diagnoses are provided for Heteromurus (Heteromurtrella) nitens Yosii, 1964, Lepidocyrtus nigrosetosus Folsom, 1927 and Pseudosinella intermixta (Folsom, 1924). Lepidocyrtus leleupi Jacquemart, 1976 is synonymized with L. nigrosetosus. An updated checklist of all species within the superfamily Entomobryoidea reported from the Galápagos Islands is provided.


Taxonomy: Categorising Collembola - Biology

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Taxonomy: Categorising Collembola - Biology

All articles published by MDPI are made immediately available worldwide under an open access license. No special permission is required to reuse all or part of the article published by MDPI, including figures and tables. For articles published under an open access Creative Common CC BY license, any part of the article may be reused without permission provided that the original article is clearly cited.

Feature Papers represent the most advanced research with significant potential for high impact in the field. Feature Papers are submitted upon individual invitation or recommendation by the scientific editors and undergo peer review prior to publication.

The Feature Paper can be either an original research article, a substantial novel research study that often involves several techniques or approaches, or a comprehensive review paper with concise and precise updates on the latest progress in the field that systematically reviews the most exciting advances in scientific literature. This type of paper provides an outlook on future directions of research or possible applications.

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to authors, or important in this field. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.