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Where can I find a list of medical conditions and their incidence rates?

Where can I find a list of medical conditions and their incidence rates?


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Where can I find a list of diseases and their incidence rates? I'm giving a presentation on Long QT Syndrome, which affects 1 in 2000 people, or 50 per 100,000. I'm trying to find other, more well-known diseases with a similar incidence to give my audience a frame of reference.

(Note: This is not a duplicate of this question. That question is asking about very rare diseases, and the answers to that question reflect that)


Cancer Disparities

Although cancer incidence and mortality overall are declining in the United States, certain groups continue to be at increased risk of developing or dying from particular cancers.

Cancer affects all population groups in the United States, but due to social, environmental, and economic disadvantages, certain groups bear a disproportionate burden of cancer compared with other groups.

Cancer disparities (sometimes called cancer health disparities) are differences in cancer measures such as:

  • incidence (new cases)
  • prevalence (all existing cases)
  • mortality (deaths)
  • survival (how long people survive after diagnosis)
  • morbidity (cancer-related health complications)
  • survivorship (including quality of life after cancer treatment) or related health conditions
  • screening rates
  • stage at diagnosis

Cancer disparities can also be seen when outcomes are improving overall but the improvements are not seen in some groups relative to other groups.

Population groups that may experience cancer disparities include groups defined by race/ethnicity, disability, gender identity, geographic location, income, education, age, sexual orientation, national origin, and/or other characteristics.


Diabetes in a Nursing Home

Suppose we were interested in the problem of diabetes in a nursing home with 800 residents. We would begin by doing blood tests on all residents to determine which were diabetic. If 50 of the residents were diabetic initially, then the prevalence of diabetes at this point in time would be 50/800 = 0.0625. The standard way of expressing this would be to say that the prevalence was 62.5 per 1000 residents or 6.25 per 100 residents, or 0.0625%

If we want to estimate the incidence of diabetes in this population over the next 12 months, we need to exclude the 50 people who are already diabetic and focus on the 750 residents who are disease-free initially. We would then need to do additional blood tests to determine how many new cases developed during the span of time. Because some of the residents might die or be transferred to other facilities during the year, we ideally would like to take blood tests frequently, but for financial and logistical reasons, we might simply conduct a second series of blood tests after one year. If 25 were found to be diabetic at the end of a year, then the incidence would be 25/750 = 0.0333 or about 3.3 per hundred (3.3%) over a year. Note that we are describing the time span, i.e. the period of observation, when we report the incidence.

When incidence is determined in this way, that is, by evaluating the presence of disease at the beginning and then dividing the number of known new cases by the number of people "at risk" at the beginning, it is referred to as a cumulative incidence and can also be thought of as the incidence proportion . While people commonly refer to this as a 'rate,' this is really a proportion. It is the proportion of the "at risk" group that developed disease over a stated block of time.

The cumulative incidence of AIDS in MA during 2004:

Cumulative incidence is easy to measure and is commonly used in a wide variety of circumstances. For example, if we wanted to determine the incidence of AIDS in Massachusetts during calendar year 2004, it isn't feasible for us to check every citizen at the beginning and end of the year. Census data gives us a rough idea of how many people lived in Massachusetts during 2004, and AIDS is a reportable disease, so we could go to the MA Department of Public Health and obtain an estimate of the number of people with AIDS at the beginning of the year, and we could subtract this number from the population size to get a denominator that represents the number of people "at risk" of developing AIDS. Then, we could go back to DPH at the end of the calendar year and ask how many new people had been reported with AIDS. This is our numerator. So, the cumulative incidence would be:

(# new AIDS cases reported during the year) / (population of MA at risk),

i.e. minus existing cases at the beginning of the year)

In reality, there were 523 new AIDS cases reported in MA in 2004, and the population was about 5.7 million. So, the cumulative incidence was about 9.2 per 100,000 people during 2004. Note that the denominator is just an estimate based on the last census. In reality, people were being added to and subtracted from the population continually as a result of births, deaths, moving into the city, and moving out. We also didn't take into account exactly when they developed AIDS, although we probably don't care whether they developed it earlier or later within a one year period. Nevertheless, this cumulative incidence is a useful number, and it is relatively easy to get the information we need to calculate it.

It is important to specify the time period when reporting cumulative incidence. In the fall semester of 2003 there were 130 students in EP713 at the beginning of the semester, and 55 of them reported developing a cold or other respiratory infection during the semester. So, the cumulative incidence = 55/130 = 0.42307 or 42.3% over the course of the semester. The time period of observation is expressed in words.


Diseases and conditions

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While there’s no one diet for psoriasis, changing what you eat may help reduce flare-ups. Here’s what studies have found.

More people have been diagnosed with syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease, than HIV in recent years. Find out why and if you could be at risk.

Complications from shingles can last a lifetime. If you’re 50 or older, here’s the one thing you can do to greatly reduce your risk of getting shingles.

Hives are itchy welts on the skin. Here’s what dermatologists recommend if you’ve had flare-ups for 6 weeks or longer.

This childhood disease can cause painful mouth sores and an itchy rash. Taking these simple precautions can reduce your child’s risk.

It’s possible to clear warts more quickly and prevent new ones from developing. You probably have everything you need at home.

While acne will eventually go away on its own, dermatologists strongly recommend treating it. Here’s why.

Also called an AK, this growth can turn into skin cancer, so you want to know if you have one. These pictures show you what to look for.

If your child has eczema, you can gain control. This online guide offers dermatologists’ insight to help you calm the skin and reduce flare-ups.

The right skin care can make a noticeable difference. Here’s what dermatologists recommend.

These two conditions can look similar. Find out how to tell the difference.

Skin cancer can look harmless. Would you think any of these spots could be a skin cancer?


What is prevalence?

Prevalence is a measure of disease that allows us to determine a person's likelihood of having a disease. Therefore, the number of prevalent cases is the total number of cases of disease existing in a population. A prevalence rate is the total number of cases of a disease existing in a population divided by the total population. So, if a measurement of cancer is taken in a population of 40,000 people and 1,200 were recently diagnosed with cancer and 3,500 are living with cancer, then the prevalence of cancer is 0.118. (or 11,750 per 100,000 persons)


Where can I find a list of medical conditions and their incidence rates? - Biology

Be aware of current health issues in Pakistan. Learn how to protect yourself.

Alert Level 2, Practice Enhanced Precautions

  • Updated Polio in Asia June 11, 2021 Everyone should be fully vaccinated against poliovirus according to schedule.

Watch Level 1, Practice Usual Precautions

  • XDR Typhoid Fever in Pakistan May 12, 2021 An outbreak of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) typhoid fever in Pakistan is ongoing. Extensively drug-resistant infections do not respond to most antibiotics.
  • Dengue in Asia and the Pacific Islands March 01, 2021 Dengue is a risk in many parts of Asia and the Pacific Islands. Some countries are reporting increased numbers of cases of the disease. Travelers to Asia and the Pacific Islands can protect themselves by preventing mosquito bites.

Vaccines and Medicines

Check the vaccines and medicines list and visit your doctor at least a month before your trip to get vaccines or medicines you may need.

Make sure you are up-to-date on all routine vaccines before every trip. Some of these vaccines include

  • Chickenpox (Varicella)
  • Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis
  • Flu (influenza)
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR)
  • Polio

Everyone 16 years of age and older should get fully vaccinated for COVID-19 before travel.

Recommended for unvaccinated travelers one year old or older going to Pakistan.

Infants 6 to 11 months old should also be vaccinated against Hepatitis A. The dose does not count toward the routine 2-dose series.

Travelers allergic to a vaccine component or who are younger than 6 months should receive a single dose of immune globulin, which provides effective protection for up to 2 months depending on dosage given.

Unvaccinated travelers who are over 40 years old, immunocompromised, or have chronic medical conditions planning to depart to a risk area in less than 2 weeks should get the initial dose of vaccine and at the same appointment receive immune globulin.

Recommended for unvaccinated travelers of all ages to Pakistan.

Recommended for travelers who

  • Are moving to an area with Japanese encephalitis to live
  • Spend long periods of time, such as a month or more, in areas with Japanese encephalitis
  • Frequently travel to areas with Japanese encephalitis

Consider vaccination for travelers

  • Spending less than a month in areas with Japanese encephalitis but will be doing activities that increase risk of infection, such as visiting rural areas, hiking or camping, or staying in places without air conditioning, screens, or bed nets
  • Going to areas with Japanese encephalitis who are uncertain of their activities or how long they will be there

Not recommended for travelers planning short-term travel to urban areas or travel to areas with no clear Japanese encephalitis season.

CDC recommends that travelers going to certain areas of Pakistan take prescription medicine to prevent malaria. Depending on the medicine you take, you will need to start taking this medicine multiple days before your trip, as well as during and after your trip. Talk to your doctor about which malaria medication you should take.

Infants 6 to 11 months old traveling internationally should get 1 dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine before travel. This dose does not count as part of the routine childhood vaccination series.

A single lifetime booster dose of Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) is recommended for adults who received the routine polio vaccination series as children the routine series is recommended for unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated children and adults and those with unknown vaccination status.

Rabid dogs are commonly found in Pakistan. If you are bitten or scratched by a dog or other mammal while in Pakistan, there may be limited or no rabies treatment available.

Consider rabies vaccination before your trip if your activities mean you will be around dogs or wildlife.

Travelers more likely to encounter rabid animals include

  • Campers, adventure travelers, or cave explorers (spelunkers)
  • Veterinarians, animal handlers, field biologists, or laboratory workers handling animal specimens
  • Visitors to rural areas

Since children are more likely to be bitten or scratched by a dog or other animals, consider rabies vaccination for children traveling to Pakistan.

Recommended for most travelers, especially those who are staying with friends or relatives visiting smaller cities, villages, or rural areas where exposure might occur through food or water or prone to "adventurous eating." A significant proportion of Salmonella Typhi strains found in Pakistan are extensively drug resistant but remain susceptible to azithromycin and carbapenems (more information).

Required if traveling from a country with risk of YF virus transmission and &ge1 year of age. 1

Routine vaccines

Recommendations

Make sure you are up-to-date on all routine vaccines before every trip. Some of these vaccines include

  • Chickenpox (Varicella)
  • Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis
  • Flu (influenza)
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR)
  • Polio
Guidance

COVID-19

Recommendations

Everyone 16 years of age and older should get fully vaccinated for COVID-19 before travel.

Guidance

Hepatitis A

Recommendations

Recommended for unvaccinated travelers one year old or older going to Pakistan.

Infants 6 to 11 months old should also be vaccinated against Hepatitis A. The dose does not count toward the routine 2-dose series.

Travelers allergic to a vaccine component or who are younger than 6 months should receive a single dose of immune globulin, which provides effective protection for up to 2 months depending on dosage given.

Unvaccinated travelers who are over 40 years old, immunocompromised, or have chronic medical conditions planning to depart to a risk area in less than 2 weeks should get the initial dose of vaccine and at the same appointment receive immune globulin.

Guidance

Hepatitis B

Recommendations

Recommended for unvaccinated travelers of all ages to Pakistan.

Guidance

Japanese Encephalitis

Recommendations

Recommended for travelers who

  • Are moving to an area with Japanese encephalitis to live
  • Spend long periods of time, such as a month or more, in areas with Japanese encephalitis
  • Frequently travel to areas with Japanese encephalitis

Consider vaccination for travelers

  • Spending less than a month in areas with Japanese encephalitis but will be doing activities that increase risk of infection, such as visiting rural areas, hiking or camping, or staying in places without air conditioning, screens, or bed nets
  • Going to areas with Japanese encephalitis who are uncertain of their activities or how long they will be there

Not recommended for travelers planning short-term travel to urban areas or travel to areas with no clear Japanese encephalitis season.

Guidance

Malaria

Recommendations

CDC recommends that travelers going to certain areas of Pakistan take prescription medicine to prevent malaria. Depending on the medicine you take, you will need to start taking this medicine multiple days before your trip, as well as during and after your trip. Talk to your doctor about which malaria medication you should take.

Guidance

Measles

Recommendations

Infants 6 to 11 months old traveling internationally should get 1 dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine before travel. This dose does not count as part of the routine childhood vaccination series.

Guidance

Polio

Recommendations

A single lifetime booster dose of Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) is recommended for adults who received the routine polio vaccination series as children the routine series is recommended for unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated children and adults and those with unknown vaccination status.

Guidance

Rabies

Recommendations

Rabid dogs are commonly found in Pakistan. If you are bitten or scratched by a dog or other mammal while in Pakistan, there may be limited or no rabies treatment available.

Consider rabies vaccination before your trip if your activities mean you will be around dogs or wildlife.

Travelers more likely to encounter rabid animals include

  • Campers, adventure travelers, or cave explorers (spelunkers)
  • Veterinarians, animal handlers, field biologists, or laboratory workers handling animal specimens
  • Visitors to rural areas

Since children are more likely to be bitten or scratched by a dog or other animals, consider rabies vaccination for children traveling to Pakistan.

Guidance

Typhoid

Recommendations

Recommended for most travelers, especially those who are staying with friends or relatives visiting smaller cities, villages, or rural areas where exposure might occur through food or water or prone to "adventurous eating." A significant proportion of Salmonella Typhi strains found in Pakistan are extensively drug resistant but remain susceptible to azithromycin and carbapenems (more information).

Guidance

Yellow Fever

Recommendations

Required if traveling from a country with risk of YF virus transmission and &ge1 year of age. 1

Guidance

Non-Vaccine-Preventable Diseases

Avoid contaminated water

  • Touching urine or other body fluids from an animal infected with leptospirosis
  • Swimming or wading in urine-contaminated fresh water, or contact with urine-contaminated mud
  • Drinking water or eating food contaminated with animal urine
  • Avoid contaminated water and soil

Avoid bug bites

Airborne & droplet

  • Breathing in air or accidentally eating food contaminated with the urine, droppings, or saliva of infected rodents
  • Bite from an infected rodent
  • Less commonly, being around someone sick with hantavirus (only occurs with Andes virus)
  • Avoid rodents and areas where they live
  • Avoid sick people
  • Breathe in TB bacteria that is in the air from an infected and contagious person coughing, speaking, or singing.
  • Avoid sick people

Avoid contaminated water

Leptospirosis

How most people get sick (most common modes of transmission)
  • Touching urine or other body fluids from an animal infected with leptospirosis
  • Swimming or wading in urine-contaminated fresh water, or contact with urine-contaminated mud
  • Drinking water or eating food contaminated with animal urine
Advice
Clinical Guidance

Avoid bug bites

Chikungunya

How most people get sick (most common modes of transmission)
Advice
Clinical Guidance

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic fever

How most people get sick (most common modes of transmission)
Advice
Clinical Guidance

Dengue

How most people get sick (most common modes of transmission)
Advice
Clinical Guidance

Leishmaniasis

How most people get sick (most common modes of transmission)
Advice
Clinical Guidance

Airborne & droplet

Hantavirus

How most people get sick (most common modes of transmission)
  • Breathing in air or accidentally eating food contaminated with the urine, droppings, or saliva of infected rodents
  • Bite from an infected rodent
  • Less commonly, being around someone sick with hantavirus (only occurs with Andes virus)
Advice
Clinical Guidance

Tuberculosis (TB)

How most people get sick (most common modes of transmission)
  • Breathe in TB bacteria that is in the air from an infected and contagious person coughing, speaking, or singing.
Advice
Clinical Guidance

Stay Healthy and Safe

Learn actions you can take to stay healthy and safe on your trip. Vaccines cannot protect you from many diseases in Pakistan, so your behaviors are important.

Eat and drink safely

Unclean food and water can cause travelers' diarrhea and other diseases. Reduce your risk by sticking to safe food and water habits.

  • Food that is cooked and served hot
  • Hard-cooked eggs
  • Fruits and vegetables you have washed in clean water or peeled yourself
  • Pasteurized dairy products
Don't Eat
  • Food served at room temperature
  • Food from street vendors
  • Raw or soft-cooked (runny) eggs
  • Raw or undercooked (rare) meat or fish
  • Unwashed or unpeeled raw fruits and vegetables
  • Unpasteurized dairy products
  • &rdquoBushmeat&rdquo (monkeys, bats, or other wild game)
Drink
  • Bottled water that is sealed
  • Water that has been disinfected
  • Ice made with bottled or disinfected water
  • Carbonated drinks
  • Hot coffee or tea
  • Pasteurized milk
Don&rsquot Drink
  • Tap or well water
  • Ice made with tap or well water
  • Drinks made with tap or well water (such as reconstituted juice)
  • Unpasteurized milk
Take Medicine

Talk with your doctor about taking prescription or over-the-counter drugs with you on your trip in case you get sick.

Prevent bug bites

Bugs (like mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas) can spread a number of diseases in Pakistan. Many of these diseases cannot be prevented with a vaccine or medicine. You can reduce your risk by taking steps to prevent bug bites.

What can I do to prevent bug bites?
  • Cover exposed skin by wearing long-sleeved shirts, long pants, and hats.
  • Use an appropriate insect repellent (see below).
  • Use permethrin-treated clothing and gear (such as boots, pants, socks, and tents). Do not use permethrin directly on skin.
  • Stay and sleep in air-conditioned or screened rooms.
  • Use a bed net if the area where you are sleeping is exposed to the outdoors.
What type of insect repellent should I use?
  • FOR PROTECTION AGAINST TICKS AND MOSQUITOES: Use a repellent that contains 20% or more DEET for protection that lasts up to several hours.
  • FOR PROTECTION AGAINST MOSQUITOES ONLY: Products with one of the following active ingredients can also help prevent mosquito bites. Higher percentages of active ingredient provide longer protection.
    • DEET
    • Picaridin (also known as KBR 3023, Bayrepel, and icaridin)
    • Oil of lemon eucalyptus (OLE) or para-menthane-diol (PMD)
    • IR3535
    • 2-undecanone
    What should I do if I am bitten by bugs?
    • Avoid scratching bug bites, and apply hydrocortisone cream or calamine lotion to reduce the itching.
    • Check your entire body for ticks after outdoor activity. Be sure to remove ticks properly.
    What can I do to avoid bed bugs?

    Although bed bugs do not carry disease, they are an annoyance. See our information page about avoiding bug bites for some easy tips to avoid them. For more information on bed bugs, see Bed Bugs.

    For more detailed information on avoiding bug bites, see Avoid Bug Bites.

    Stay safe outdoors

    If your travel plans in Pakistan include outdoor activities, take these steps to stay safe and healthy during your trip.

    • Stay alert to changing weather conditions and adjust your plans if conditions become unsafe.
    • Prepare for activities by wearing the right clothes and packing protective items, such as bug spray, sunscreen, and a basic first aid kit.
    • Consider learning basic first aid and CPR before travel. Bring a travel health kit with items appropriate for your activities.
    • Heat-related illness, such as heat stroke, can be deadly. Eat and drink regularly, wear loose and lightweight clothing, and limit physical activity during high temperatures.
      • If you are outside for many hours in heat, eat salty snacks and drink water to stay hydrated and replace salt lost through sweating.
      Stay safe around water
      • Swim only in designated swimming areas. Obey lifeguards and warning flags on beaches.
      • Practice safe boating&mdashfollow all boating safety laws, do not drink alcohol if driving a boat, and always wear a life jacket.
      • Do not dive into shallow water.
      • Do not swim in freshwater in developing areas or where sanitation is poor.
      • Avoid swallowing water when swimming. Untreated water can carry germs that make you sick.
      • To prevent infections, wear shoes on beaches where there may be animal waste.

      Keep away from animals

      Most animals avoid people, but they may attack if they feel threatened, are protecting their young or territory, or if they are injured or ill. Animal bites and scratches can lead to serious diseases such as rabies.

      Follow these tips to protect yourself:

      • Do not touch or feed any animals you do not know.
      • Do not allow animals to lick open wounds, and do not get animal saliva in your eyes or mouth.
      • Avoid rodents and their urine and feces.
      • Traveling pets should be supervised closely and not allowed to come in contact with local animals.
      • If you wake in a room with a bat, seek medical care immediately. Bat bites may be hard to see.

      All animals can pose a threat, but be extra careful around dogs, bats, monkeys, sea animals such as jellyfish, and snakes. If you are bitten or scratched by an animal, immediately:

      • Wash the wound with soap and clean water.
      • Go to a doctor right away.
      • Tell your doctor about your injury when you get back to the United States.

      Consider buying medical evacuation insurance. Rabies is a deadly disease that must be treated quickly, and treatment may not be available in some countries.

      Reduce your exposure to germs

      Follow these tips to avoid getting sick or spreading illness to others while traveling:

      • Wash your hands often, especially before eating.
      • If soap and water aren&rsquot available, clean hands with hand sanitizer (containing at least 60% alcohol).
      • Don&rsquot touch your eyes, nose, or mouth. If you need to touch your face, make sure your hands are clean.
      • Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or your sleeve (not your hands) when coughing or sneezing.
      • Try to avoid contact with people who are sick.
      • If you are sick, stay home or in your hotel room, unless you need medical care.

      Avoid sharing body fluids

      Diseases can be spread through body fluids, such as saliva, blood, vomit, and semen.

      • Use latex condoms correctly.
      • Do not inject drugs.
      • Limit alcohol consumption. People take more risks when intoxicated.
      • Do not share needles or any devices that can break the skin. That includes needles for tattoos, piercings, and acupuncture.
      • If you receive medical or dental care, make sure the equipment is disinfected or sanitized.

      Know how to get medical care while traveling

      Plan for how you will get health care during your trip, should the need arise:

      • Carry a list of local doctors and hospitals at your destination.
      • Review your health insurance plan to determine what medical services it would cover during your trip. Consider purchasing travel health and medical evacuation insurance.
      • Carry a card that identifies, in the local language, your blood type, chronic conditions or serious allergies, and the generic names of any medications you take.
      • Some prescription drugs may be illegal in other countries. Call Pakistan&rsquos embassy to verify that all of your prescription(s) are legal to bring with you.
      • Bring all the medicines (including over-the-counter medicines) you think you might need during your trip, including extra in case of travel delays. Ask your doctor to help you get prescriptions filled early if you need to.

      Many foreign hospitals and clinics are accredited by the Joint Commission International. A list of accredited facilities is available at their website (www.jointcommissioninternational.org).

      In some countries, medicine (prescription and over-the-counter) may be substandard or counterfeit. Bring the medicines you will need from the United States to avoid having to buy them at your destination.

      Malaria is a risk in Pakistan. Fill your malaria prescription before you leave and take enough with you for the entire length of your trip. Follow your doctor&rsquos instructions for taking the pills some need to be started before you leave.

      Select safe transportation

      Motor vehicle crashes are the #1 killer of healthy US citizens in foreign countries.

      In many places cars, buses, large trucks, rickshaws, bikes, people on foot, and even animals share the same lanes of traffic, increasing the risk for crashes.

      Walking

      Be smart when you are traveling on foot.

      • Use sidewalks and marked crosswalks.
      • Pay attention to the traffic around you, especially in crowded areas.
      • Remember, people on foot do not always have the right of way in other countries.
      Riding/Driving
      • Choose official taxis or public transportation, such as trains and buses.
      • Ride only in cars that have seatbelts.
      • Avoid overcrowded, overloaded, top-heavy buses and minivans.
      • Avoid riding on motorcycles or motorbikes, especially motorbike taxis. (Many crashes are caused by inexperienced motorbike drivers.)
      • Choose newer vehicles&mdashthey may have more safety features, such as airbags, and be more reliable.
      • Choose larger vehicles, which may provide more protection in crashes.
      • Do not drive after drinking alcohol or ride with someone who has been drinking.
      • Consider hiring a licensed, trained driver familiar with the area.
      • Arrange payment before departing.
      • Wear a seatbelt at all times.
      • Sit in the back seat of cars and taxis.
      • When on motorbikes or bicycles, always wear a helmet. (Bring a helmet from home, if needed.)
      • Avoid driving at night street lighting in certain parts of Pakistan may be poor.
      • Do not use a cell phone or text while driving (illegal in many countries).
      • Travel during daylight hours only, especially in rural areas.
      • If you choose to drive a vehicle in Pakistan, learn the local traffic laws and have the proper paperwork.
      • Get any driving permits and insurance you may need. Get an International Driving Permit (IDP). Carry the IDP and a US-issued driver's license at all times.
      • Check with your auto insurance policy's international coverage, and get more coverage if needed. Make sure you have liability insurance.
      Flying
      • Avoid using local, unscheduled aircraft.
      • If possible, fly on larger planes (more than 30 seats) larger airplanes are more likely to have regular safety inspections.
      • Try to schedule flights during daylight hours and in good weather.
      Medical Evacuation Insurance

      If you are seriously injured, emergency care may not be available or may not meet US standards. Trauma care centers are uncommon outside urban areas. Having medical evacuation insurance can be helpful for these reasons.

      Helpful Resources

      Road Safety Overseas (Information from the US Department of State): Includes tips on driving in other countries, International Driving Permits, auto insurance, and other resources.

      The Association for International Road Travel has country-specific Road Travel Reports available for most countries for a minimal fee.

      Traffic flows on the left side of the road in Pakistan.

      • Always pay close attention to the flow of traffic, especially when crossing the street.
      • LOOK RIGHT for approaching traffic.

      Maintain personal security

      Use the same common sense traveling overseas that you would at home, and always stay alert and aware of your surroundings.

      Before you leave
      • Research your destination(s), including local laws, customs, and culture.
      • Monitor travel advisories and alerts and read travel tips from the US Department of State.
      • Enroll in the Smart Traveler Enrollment Program (STEP).
      • Leave a copy of your itinerary, contact information, credit cards, and passport with someone at home.
      • Pack as light as possible, and leave at home any item you could not replace.
      While at your destination(s)
      • Carry contact information for the nearest US embassy or consulate.
      • Carry a photocopy of your passport and entry stamp leave the actual passport securely in your hotel.
      • Follow all local laws and social customs.
      • Do not wear expensive clothing or jewelry.
      • Always keep hotel doors locked, and store valuables in secure areas.
      • If possible, choose hotel rooms between the 2nd and 6th floors.

      Healthy Travel Packing List

      Use the Healthy Travel Packing List for Pakistan for a list of health-related items to consider packing for your trip. Talk to your doctor about which items are most important for you.

      Why does CDC recommend packing these health-related items?

      It&rsquos best to be prepared to prevent and treat common illnesses and injuries. Some supplies and medicines may be difficult to find at your destination, may have different names, or may have different ingredients than what you normally use.

      After Your Trip

      If you are not feeling well after your trip, you may need to see a doctor. If you need help finding a travel medicine specialist, see Find a Clinic. Be sure to tell your doctor about your travel, including where you went and what you did on your trip. Also tell your doctor if you were bitten or scratched by an animal while traveling.

      If your doctor prescribed antimalarial medicine for your trip, keep taking the rest of your pills after you return home. If you stop taking your medicine too soon, you could still get sick.

      Malaria is always a serious disease and may be a deadly illness. If you become ill with a fever either while traveling in a malaria-risk area or after you return home (for up to 1 year), you should seek immediate medical attention and should tell the doctor about your travel history.

      For more information on what to do if you are sick after your trip, see Getting Sick after Travel.

      Map Disclaimer - The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on maps do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement are generally marked.


      How to find data on infectious disease outbreaks

      Over the past couple of weeks I have been investigating the current landscape of publicly available data on infectious disease outbreaks. This data has been reported through several channels. Below is a discussion regarding various datasets, what data is collected and how it is presented, how they are financed, and where they can be found.

      1. WHO/ UN databases

      The World Health Organization (WHO) has a breadth of datasets available for public access on their webpage. There are some datasets available for specific infectious diseases/ groups of diseases, including: HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, neglected tropical diseases, cholera, influenza, meningitis, and sexual transmitted infections. For a more comprehensive dataset on a number of infectious diseases, the ‘Global Health Estimates 2015’ includes disease specific mortality rates, by sex and age. The data is collected and reported from 2000-2015. The data is available in .csv and .xls files, ensuring user-friendly data extraction. This work is funded by the WHO, and can be accessed here.

      2. IHME- Global Burden of Disease (GBD) series

      The Lancet has published the largest observational epidemiology study on the burden of disease, conducted from the Institute of Health Metrics Evaluation (IHME) out of the University of Washington. The most recent iteration of the study was conducted in 2016. The burden of disease is commonly measured by mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence in these databases. The collected and reported data dates to 1970 until 2016 and spans 333 diseases and injuries. The data reported include communicable and non-communicable diseases. The databases are presented through multiple articles, allowing supplementary material, and figures and images to be accessed individually. These supplementary materials are not interactive and can only be accessed through PDF formats making it difficult to extract large amounts of data. Although there are a vast number of diseases, not all are present in the datasets- for example: cholera. Each study article was individually funded by several funders, some key organizations include: The Gates Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, the World Bank, the National Science Foundation, and the Indian Council of Medical Research. IHME has made a results tool available online which can filter the 2016 data by location, year, age, sex, and burden measurement across the identified causes/ diseases. This tool allows the data to be extracted onto a .csv file. In addition, all the data sources are available here.

      3. Nature Study

      The original study published by Jones et al (2008), ‘Global Trends in Emerging Infectious Diseases’, has since been updated by Allen et al (2017), ‘Global Hotspots and Correlates of Emerging Zoonotic Diseases’. The data in this study is collected through an extensive literature review, collecting data from 1940 onwards. The study identifies the spatial, temporal and biological characteristics of a disease during its initial emergence in the human population. The study seeks to identify why diseases emerge within the human population, rather than providing metrics of mortality and morbidity for each outbreak. Supplementary information includes the dataset created and is made available online via the Nature journal. The initial study was funded by NSF, NIH, The New York Community Trust, V. Kann Rasmussen Foundation and Columbia University Earth Institute fellowship. The updated study was funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Department of the Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

      The Global Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology Network (GIDEON) supplies infectious disease outbreak data to its subscribers, and can accessed here. GIDEON was founded in 1992 and is available as a web based application and an ebook series. The data is collected from peer-reviewed publications, national health ministry reports, and other key global health players (e.g. WHO & CDC). The system is updated frequently to ensure that the data is as accurate and relevant as possible. There are two main categories within GIDEON: infectious disease and microbiology. The database is accessible by a 15-day free trial, and after a monthly subscription fee of $99.90 (1-year contract) or $199.90 (monthly rolling bases). GIDEON is a private organization and funded through these subscription fees. Although GIDEON requires a subscription fee, it has been used in a number of published studies with databases made available. Most notably, Smith et al compiled a comprehensive dataset from GIDEON that spans over a 33-year period (1980-2013).

      5. HealthMap

      HealthMap was established in 2006 at Boston Children’s Hospital to provide real-time surveillance of infectious disease outbreaks. The software uses freely available, informal online data sources, including but not limited to: ProMED, WHO, OIE, FAO, Google News, and EuroSurveillance. The data is displayed through a map, each point indicating an outbreak. The data can be filtered by disease, location, source, species, and date. Alternatively, the data can be viewed through a list format or over a time series graph. The data can be accessed online or through their mobile app “outbreaks near me”. The data source is made available primarily through funding by: Google, the Gates Foundation, Unilever, USAID, Amazon, Merck, Twitter, CIHR, CDC, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), IARPA, and the U.S. National Library of Medicine. HealthMap can be accessed here .

      The Program for Monitoring Emerging Disease (ProMED) is a program from the International Society for Infectious Diseases and tracks infectious disease outbreaks and acute exposures to toxins. The data is collected through media reports, official reports, online summaries, local observers, and others. The information submitted by individuals must be accompanied by affiliation identification, and is screened by the ProMED team prior to posting. ProMED is an archived database of infectious disease reports, which makes it difficult to extract large amounts of data efficiently. The program was created to increase communication among the international infectious diseases community, and encourages discussion. ProMED is available through an online website and allows individuals to subscribe to one or more of their “lists” in order to receive updated outbreak reports via email. The lists identify which topic areas are of interest within the ProMED database. ProMED collaborates with the HealthMap at the Boston Children’s Hospital. The funding for ProMED is primarily made available by the Wellcome Trust, Skoll Global Threats Funds, Google, the Gates Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, the Oracle Corporation, and the Nuclear Threat Initiative. ProMed can be accessed here.


      The Forgotten Killer

      There is, indeed, evidence that African-Americans may have a genetic susceptibility to diabetes. Even so, Nelson says, the real problem is empowering patients to keep their diabetes under control.

      "Patients often have the sense that they are not as much in charge of managing their diabetes as their doctor," Nelson says. "Where I work, in various settings, there is an emphasis on patients. We say this is what your blood sugar is this is what influences your blood sugar you have to remember to take your meds. So as a diabetes educator I know there has to be an emphasis on patients putting out more effort to manage their own health."

      It's easy to say people with diabetes should learn how to control their disease. But the tools for this kind of self-empowerment often aren't available in black neighborhoods, says Elizabeth D. Carlson, DSN, RN, MPH. Carlson, a postdoctoral fellow in the division of cancer prevention and education at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, studies the social determinants of health.

      "I go to this black neighborhood 20 minutes from my house in a white neighborhood, and the health education they get in school is much worse than the health education my kids get," Carlson tells WebMD. "It is not just formal education, but everyday things. It's being afraid to go out and exercise because you live in a high-crime neighborhood. It's not having transportation to your health care provider. It's not having decent fresh fruits and vegetables in the local grocery."


      RESULTS

      Based on our analysis, US federal prisons held 129 196 inmates and state prisons 1 225 680 in 2004. In 2002, local jails held 631 241 inmates. The overwhelming majority of inmates were male, were younger than 35 years, and were disproportionately Black or Hispanic. About 200 000 (10%) were military veterans. The majority were parents of minor children at the time of incarceration or at the time of the survey.

      Nonresponse to individual items was uncommon. Among federal inmates, 2.1% were missing data on prescription medications at admission and 2.8% on prior diagnosis of PTSD 6.0% were missing data for HIV testing and 15.8% for duration of incarceration. No data were provided for sexual assault or gunshot wounds in federal prisons. Among state inmates, 1.2% were missing data on prescription medications at admission and 1.7% on prior diagnosis of PTSD 4.0% were missing data regarding HIV testing and 6.3% for duration of incarceration. Among jail inmates, 0.5% were missing data on the duration of incarceration and 2.2% on prior diagnosis of PTSD 5.2% were missing data on HIV testing.

      Chronic Medical Problems

      Chronic conditions were common among inmates 49 702 federal inmates (38.5% [SE = 2.2%]), 524 116 state inmates (42.8% [SE = 1.1%]), and 244 336 local jail inmates (38.7% [SE = 0.7%]) had at least 1 chronic medical condition ( Table 1 ).

      TABLE 1

      Demographic and Health Characteristics of Inmates in US Federal and State Prisons and in Jails: SISFCF, 2004, and SILJ, 2002

      Federal Inmates State Inmates Jail Inmates
      No.% (SE)No.% (SE)No.% (SE)
      Total129 1961001 225 680100631 241100
      Men120 15093.0 (0.6)1 142 98993.3 (0.4)558 18288.4 (0.3)
      Age, y
         ��64 69250.1 (2.0)654 50553.4 (1.0)408 32164.7 (0.7)
         ��50 18038.8 (2.2)465 87438.0 (1.1)196 42031.1 (0.7)
          > 5014 32411.1 (2.7)105 3028.6 (1.4)26 5004.2 (0.3)
      Parent of minor child a 87 61867.8 (1.6)706 94257.7 (0.9)355 96356.4 (0.7)
      Race
          Non-Hispanic White33 59926.0 (2.4)431 44935.2 (1.2)226 20935.8 (1.1)
          Non-Hispanic Black55 94743.3 (2.1)496 74540.5 (1.1)252 11639.9 (1.2)
          Hispanic32 41425.1 (2.1)222 45118.2 (1.3)116 31618.4 (0.9)
          Other7 2355.5 (2.8)75 0366.1 (1.4)36 6005.8 (0.4)
      Military veteran12 5629.7 (2.7)127 50910.4 (1.4)58 7619.3 (0.5)
      Any mental health condition b 19 11714.8 (2.6)312 76825.5 (1.3)157 63425.0 (0.7)
      Any chronic medical condition c 49 70238.5 (2.2)524 11642.8 (1.1)244 33638.7 (0.7)

      Note. SISFCF = Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities SILJ = Survey of Inmates in Local Jails. Median duration of incarceration in months (interquartile range) was as follows: for federal inmates, 29 (12�) for state inmates, 27 (9�) for jail inmates, 2 (0𠄴).

      Inmates had rates of diabetes, hypertension, prior myocardial infarction, and persistent asthma comparable to those of the US noninstitutionalized, nonelderly population. However, following age standardization to the 2000 US census, the prevalence of these conditions appeared to be higher for inmates than for the general population, except for prior myocardial infarction among jail inmates ( Table 2 see also the appendix to Table 1 , available as a supplement to the online version of this article at http://www.ajph.org). More than 20 000 inmates reported testing positive for HIV, including 1023 federal inmates (1.0% [SE = 3.1%]), 15 115 state inmates (1.6% [SE = 1.6%]), and 4245 local jail inmates (1.2% [SE = 0.2%]) this prevalence was double that of the noninstitutionalized 2003� NHANES population. These percentages did not substantially change when only inmates aged 18� years (the age group that underwent HIV testing in the NHANES sample) were included.

      TABLE 2

      Age-Standardized Prevalence of Select Chronic Conditions Among Adult Federal and State Prisoners, Jail Inmates, and the Noninstitutionalized US Population: SISFCF, 2004, SIL J, 2002, and NHANES, 2003�

      ConditionFederal Inmates, % (SE)State Inmates, % (SE)Jail Inmates, % (SE)US Population, a % (SE)
      Diabetes mellitus11.1 (3.6)10.1 (2.0)8.1 (1.7)6.5 (0.5)
      Hypertension29.5 (2.9)30.8 (1.5)27.9 (2.1)25.6 (1.0)
      Prior myocardial infarction4.5 (4.5)5.7 (2.8)2.1 (0.4)3.0 (0.3)
      Persistent kidney problems6.3 (4.0)4.5 (1.7)4.1 (0.8)
      Persistent asthma7.7 (2.8)9.8 (1.4)8.6 (1.0)7.5 (0.6)
      Persistent cirrhosis2.2 (3.9)1.8 (1.8)1.8 (0.7)
      Persistent hepatitis4.6 (2.9)5.7 (1.5)4.6 (1.4)
      HIV b 0.9 (3.2)1.7 (1.8)1.6 (0.3)0.5 (0.1)

      Note. SISFCF = Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities SILJ = Survey of Inmates in Local Jails NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Prevalence was standardized to the 2000 US population 18 years and older by direct age standardization. Inmates younger than 18 years represented 0% of federal inmates, less than 1% of state inmates, and 4.8% of jail inmates.

      Access to Medical Services

      Among inmates with a persistent medical problem, 13.9% of federal inmates, 20.1% of state inmates, and 68.4% of local jail inmates had received no medical examination since incarceration. More than 1 in 5 inmates were taking a prescription medication for some reason when they entered prison or jail of these, 7232 federal inmates (26.3%), 80 971 state inmates (28.9%), and 58 991 local jail inmates (41.8%) stopped the medication following incarceration. Prior to incarceration, slightly more than 1 in 7 inmates were taking a prescription medication for an active medical problem routinely requiring medication (as defined in the Methods section). Of these, 3314 federal (20.9% [SE = 6.7%]), 43 679 state (24.3% [SE = 3.3%]), and 28 473 local jail inmates (36.5% [SE = 1.7%]) stopped the medication following incarceration.

      Only a small portion of prison inmates (3.9% [SE = 6.5%] of federal and 6.4% [SE = 3.2%] of state inmates) with an active medical problem for which laboratory monitoring is routinely indicated had not undergone at least 1 blood test since incarceration. However, most local jail inmates with such a condition (60.1% [SE = 1.8%]) had not undergone a blood test.

      Following serious injury, 650 federal inmates (7.7%), 12 997 state inmates (12.0%), and 3183 local jail inmates (24.7%) were not seen by medical personnel ( Table 3 ).

      TABLE 3

      Access to Medical Care for Inmates of Federal Prisons, State Prisons, and Local Jails: SISFCF, 2004, and SIL J, 2002

      ConditionFederal Inmates, No. or % (SE)State Inmates, No. or % (SE)Jail Inmates, No. or % (SE)
      Persistent medical problem a
          Inmates with problem43 059465 682214 812
          Inmates with problem not examined by medical personnel13.9 (4.5)20.1 (2.1)68.4 (1.1)
      Active medical problem requiring prescription medication b
          Inmates on prescription medication at time of incarceration18 728181 99490 283
          Inmates not continued on same medication during incarceration20.9 (6.7)24.3 (3.3)36.5 (1.7)
      Prescription drug use
          Inmates on prescription drugs at time of incarceration27 522280 036141 133
          Inmates not continued on medication during incarceration26.3 (4.9)28.9 (2.6)41.8 (1.4)
      Active medical problem routinely requiring blood test c
          Inmates with problem23 467240 960106 539
          Inmates with problem but with no blood tests since admission d 3.9 (6.5)6.4 (3.2)60.1 (1.8)
      Serious injury e
          Inmates with serious injury, no.8 431107 98912 887
          Inmates not examined following serious injury, % (SE)7.7 (10.6)12.0 (4.6)24.7 (3.9)

      Note. SISFCF = Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities SILJ = Survey of Inmates in Local Jails.

      Mental Health

      Mental health problems were ubiquitous: 19 117 federal inmates (14.8% [SE = 2.6%]), 312 768 state inmates (25.5% [SE = 1.3%]), and 157 634 local jail inmates (25.0% [SE = 0.7%]) had at least 1 previously diagnosed mental condition ( Table 1 ) most of them had taken medications at some point prior to incarceration. However, a much smaller proportion of inmates with a mental health diagnosis were taking psychiatric medication at the time of their arrest: 25.5% (SE = 7.5%) of federal, 29.6% (SE = 2.8%) of state, and 38.5% (SE = 1.5%) of local jail inmates. Among inmates with a previously diagnosed mental condition who had been treated with a psychiatric medication in the past, 69.1% (SE = 4.8%) of federal, 68.6% (SE = 1.9%) of state, and 45.5% (SE = 1.6%) of local jail inmates had taken a medication for a mental condition since incarceration. A similar pattern was apparent for prearrest and postincarceration counseling ( Table 4 ).

      TABLE 4

      Prevalence of Diagnosed Mental Conditions Among Inmates of State and Federal Prisons and Local Jails, and Use of Psychiatric Medications and Counseling Before and During Incarceration: SISFCF, 2004, and SILJ, 2002

      Federal Inmates State Inmates Jail Inmates
      No.% (SE)No.% (SE)No.% (SE)
      Any diagnosed mental condition19 11714.8 (2.6)312 76825.5 (1.3)157 63425.0 (0.7)
      Medication a
         𠀾ver took medication for emotional or mental problem b 13 67471.6 (3.9)233 45674.6 (1.5)116 01173.7 (1.1)
          Was taking medication at time of arrest c 3 48125.5 (7.5)69 08829.6 (2.8)44 52638.5 (1.5)
          Taking medication since admission c 9 45569.1 (4.8)160 04868.6 (1.9)52 75545.5 (1.6)
      Counseling a
         𠀾ver received for mental or emotional problem12 14063.6 (4.4)196 49462.9 (1.8)99 90663.4 (1.3)
          Received at any time during 12 mo before arrest d 3 75430.9 (7.6)66 57833.9 (3.0)43 00743.1 (1.6)
          Received since admission d 7 09058.4 (5.9)126 04964.2 (2.2)24 14624.2 (1.5)

      Note. SISFCF = Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities SILJ = Survey of Inmates in Local Jails. Mental conditions included prior diagnosis of depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety or panic disorder, personality disorder, or other mental condition.

      Among prison inmates with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder who had ever been treated with psychiatric medication, the proportion on treatment was approximately 1 in 3 at the time of arrest and nearly 2 in 3 during incarceration (see appendix to Table 2 , available as a supplement to the online version of this article at http://www.ajph.org). Among jail inmates with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, the pattern of low treatment rates at arrest and high treatment rates following incarceration was also present, although less pronounced than in the prison population.


      United States Cancer Statistics

      CDC WONDER maintains archive versions of previous releases of data on this website to allow users to replicate data requests that were conducted in the past. Please refer to the main data repositories, listed above, to access current data.

      The United States Cancer Statistics (USCS) are the official federal statistics on cancer incidence from registries having high-quality data and cancer mortality statistics for 50 states and the District of Columbia. USCS are produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI). For a list of all USCS contributors and partners, visit USCS Contributors.

      • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR)
      • The National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program

      the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Vital Statistics System (NVSS). Cancer mortality data for deaths after 2016 are available from NVSS.


      Organizations Organizations

      Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.


      Watch the video: κεφ 44 Ποσοστά. Βρίσκω το ποσοστό % Στ δημοτικού (May 2022).