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So, right now I am making a cladogram (More of a dendrogram) for a kingdom of fictional species, and I'm not exactly sure how to represent a certain relationship.
Let's say that the oldest class in the kingdom is Clade A. And, while it is a clade in itself, it also evolved into two other classes. The first class it evolved into was Clade B, but Clade A still persists. Then, later on, Clade A evolves into Clade C - but still persists.
If I was to represent this on a dendogram, how would it be done?
The short answer is that cladograms are not compatible with Linnean taxonomy.
The longer answer explain how and why. First, there aren't enough ranks in Linnean taxonomy to cover all the cladogram nodes. The "kingdom-phylum-class-order-family… " was originally based on similiarity and not on phylogenetic relationship. For example: the class Reptilia is no longer a clade, and the class Aves is a subclade of the order Sauroschia (of the "super"-order Dinosauria, which is a clade of Diapsida which includes modern reptiles and crocodiles). The birds (Aves) are evolution descendants of dinosaurs but they ranked by Linneous as class while dinosaurs, according to Linnean taxonomy were at most super-order.
So you need to choose: a pseudo-Linnean relationship tree or a cladogram phylogenetic tree (and then you should omit the ranks' names "class", "order" etc.
I'll try to sketch the tree you described:
A | |-- B |-- C |…
Introduction to Phylogeny:How to Interpret Cladograms
W elcome to the online Cladogram Exercise 1 Web site. This online assignment will help you get more comfortable with cladograms. They are not as confusing as you probably thought they were. After completing the following steps, you will be on your way. Your feedback is valuable and encouraged.
C ladogram Terminology: Start with some basic definitions of terms such as node and branch.
S ister Taxa: Learn what a sister taxon is and why recognizing them will help you with all of the following steps.
C ladogram Styles: Examples of the same cladogram drawn in different styles and orientation.
R otate at a Node: Are the two cladograms identical, merely rotated at nodes, or are they different topologies?
P olytomies: Are they "hard" or "soft" and how do they relate to strict consensus estimates?
ASSIGNMENT PRINTING INSTRUCTIONS (OPTIONAL)
- If you want to conserve paper you can first reduce the scale after selecting Page Setup from the File menu.
- Select Print from the File menu.
- Saving the assignment to disk will not help because the resulting ASCII (text only) file will lack the tree graphics.
- Printing this assignment will not automatically print other Web pages of on-line interactive help for provided sample questions. If you have limited time, first complete the sample questions and you can separately print the (correct) answer pages if you want.
- E-mail to Prof. Eernisse at deernisse at fullerton dot edu if you find problems with these instructions or the links (remember to include your name and email address).
BASIC CLADOGRAM TERMINOLOGY:
Use the following labeled Cladogram Example to illustrate the following cladogram terminology, and then use both to answer the questions below.
A node corresponds to a hypothetical ancestor. A terminal node is the hypothetical last common ancestral interbreeding population of the taxon labeled at a tip of the cladogram. An internal node is the hypothetical last common ancestral population that speciated (i.e., split) to give rise to two or more daughter taxa, which are thus sister taxon to each other.
Each internal node is also at the base of a clade, which includes the common ancestral population (node) plus all its descendents. For example, the clade that includes both Taxon 2 and Taxon 3 is hypothesized, in this cladogram, to include their shared ancestor (actually, an interbreeding population of organisms) at internal node C and everything it gave rise to (in this case, Taxon 2 and Taxon 3). Likewise, the clade that includes all four terminal nodes and their most recently shared common ancestor originates at node A and includes all its descendents (i.e., everything to the right of node A).
Node A is termed the root of the cladogram because it is at the base of the cladogram. As in this case, the root is normally drawn with a dangling branch extending earlier (to the left in this case) of the root to indicate that this clade also is part of other more inclusive clades of living organisms, originating from even earlier ancestral populations. Eventually, this dangling connection would lead clear back to the ancestor of all of life. You can think about this cladogram as the hypothesis of what branching events happened since the moment in time when the ancestral population at node A first speciated, that is, split from one into two (in this case) species. Later in time, there were further splits, resulting in new clades that are hierarchically nested within the original clade. In particular, the clade arising from the ancestral population at node B originated later than the one arising from the original ancestral population at node A. The clade arising from the ancestral population at node B is hierarchically nested within the clade arising from node A. To use an example, mammals are nested hierarchically within the clade of all vertebrate animals. The common ancestor of all vertebrates lived before the common ancestor for all mammals. There are vertebrates that are not mammals, but all mammals are vertebrates. Mammals are a particular subgroup or part of the whole vertebrate clade.
There are four terminal nodes in this example. These include members of the ingroup: Taxon 1, Taxon 2, and Taxon 3, and a single outgroup taxon. The clade arising from node B includes all three ingroup taxa. The purpose of a cladogram is to express a particular hypothesis for the relative branching order of the ingroup taxa. This cladogram example suggests that Taxon 2 and Taxon 3 more recently shared a common ancestor than either does with Taxon 1. While this hypothesis implies that the ancestral population at node B lived before the ancestral population at node C, it does not stipulate how much earlier it lived. In other words, the cladogram is only a hypothesis of the relative order of branching it does not indicate how much absolute time past between branching events.
You should be able to find a clade originating from each internal node in this particular cladogram example. A helpful way to think about which groupings of terminal nodes are clades, in a particular cladogram, is the snip rule. Whenever you "snip" a branch directly beneath an internal node, a clade falls off. The three such clades here are:
Taxon 2 + Taxon 3
Taxon 1 + (Taxon 2 + Taxon 3)
and Outgroup + (Taxon 1 + (Taxon 2 + Taxon 3)).
In contrast, a grouping of Taxon 1 and Taxon 2 without Taxon 3 is not a clade, according to this cladogram hypothesis, because there is no way to snip off the first two without Taxon 3 also falling off.
The use of parentheses above helped to more concisely indicate sister taxon associations within a clade. This reflects an accepted standard to specify a cladogram hypothesis with nested parentheses. Using this convention, the example cladogram can be unambiguously stated as:
(outgroup (Taxon 1 (Taxon 2, Taxon 3)))
Can you draw the following alternative cladogram hypotheses?:
(outgroup (Taxon 3 (Taxon 1, Taxon 2)))
(outgroup (Taxon 2 (Taxon 1, Taxon 3)))
This website development began on August 27, 2000 and was last modified on February 24, 2004.
Parts of a Cladogram
The root is the central trunk of a cladogram that indicates the ancestor common to all groups branching from it. A cladogram uses branching lines that end in a clade, which is a group of organisms sharing a common hypothetical ancestor. The points where the lines intersect are the common ancestors and are called nodes.
Not a Clade
A clade is all the living descendants of a single common ancestor.
In general, it is an objective of the branch of biology called cladistics to define each taxonomical unit (species, genus, family, and so on) so that it is a clade. We’ll see how this works in the diagram below.
Let’s say Lucky is extinct, and the endpoints Alpha through Epsilon are all species alive today. What are the clades in this tree?
The whole thing at the highest level is a Clade with all the living descendants of Lucky. Another clade is Beta plus Gamma: all the living descendants of V. Alpha, Beta, and Gamma constitute another clade: all the living descendants of Z.
But Alpha plus Gamma by themselves do not form a clade. The most recent common ancestor of Alpha and Gamma is Z, but Beta is also a descendant of Z, so it must be in any clade including both Alpha and Gamma.
To watch Scott’s video on “How to construct a Cladogram”
Click on the link below
NOW, HERE IS A FUN CHALLENGE FOR THE BRAVE-HEARTED
YOUR JOB IS TO WRITE A GRID FOR THE DERIVED CHARACTERS OF THE ALIENS BELOW
AND TO CONSTRUCT A CLADOGRAM
List the derived characters 1 to 5 in a column on the left and the life forms A to D in a row across the top to form your matrix. I will post the answer later – come back to this site and I promise you that within a week of this post, I will post the ANSWER .
[ Hint: there are 5 different characters represented by the Aliens – it is a good idea to watch the video for help ]
And that is finally the end – thank goodness !! I hope you have liked this post.
Water moves the soil around the flowing river. Cladogram Gizmo Worksheet Answer Key – Thekidsworksheet
Water moves the soil around the flowing river. Gizmos Student Exploration Natural Selection Answer Key …
Cladistics is a powerful modern tool for studying and understanding evolution. Cladistics attempts to do for the entire history of life what genealogy does for the history of human families: to disentangle the relationships between all living beings. But while genealogy focuses on detailed lineages of ancestry and descent, cladograms focus on identifying the common ancestry of related groups.
This cladogram represents the archosaurs, the common ancestors of crocodilians, birds, and all their descendants.
Cladograms depend on two main scientific ideas. The first is that time flows in one direction only. The cladogram represents this by moving strictly from left to right. Thus, common ancestors of related groups must arise prior to these descendants in time, just as in genealogy parents arise before their children. Just as parents cannot inherit characteristics from their children, an hypothesis of ancestry requires that the “ancestor” occurred earlier in time than its first “descendants.”
The second idea is that life forms are closely related if they share new features, feathers for instance that is, characteristics that first appeared in an ancestor common to them both. Cladograms group life forms in terms of shared new characteristics that indicate commonality of ancestry. All of the descendants to the right of a branch point share that new feature none of the creatures to the left does.
In your family tree, if your grandparents had a son late in life he would be your uncle, even though you might be older than he. So it is with cladograms: in many lineages, a “related” species can live before, during or after its relatives did. In the case of the archosaur family tree, so-called primitive forms are shown having appeared later than advanced ones, the uncle born after his nephew or niece.
For example, most scientists believe that Archaeopteryx was the earliest dinosaur capable of flight, although how well it flew is debatable. Most of the well-known extinct relatives of the flying dinosaurs—Deinonychus, Velociraptor, Oviraptor—first appeared much later than Archaeopteryx did, proving that none of these theropods can be the non-flying ancestor of flying dinosaurs. But that does not mean that they are not related, perhaps distantly, to birds. Indeed, the evidence suggests that both Archaeopteryx and its cousins—Deinonychus, Velociraptor, Oviraptor—had a common ancestor not yet found in the fossil record.
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Cladogram Worksheet Biology
A cladogram answer key quiz amp worksheet cladograms and phylogenetic trees may 1st 2018 gauge your understanding of the way cladograms and phylogenetic trees are used in biology with this quiz and printable worksheet you can practice cladogram analysis worksheet answer key. Ap biology supplemental video links.
Cladogram Reading Worksheets Science Lessons 7th Grade Science
These relationships are based on observable physical characteristics.
Cladogram worksheet biology. Students will address relationships shared characteristics and more. Once you find your worksheet click on pop out icon or print icon to worksheet to print or download. It is a diagram that depicts evolutionary relationships among groups.
Cell communication worksheet turtle stamped comments 1 cell communication video guide bozeman biology. Sometimes a cladogram is called a phylogenetic tree though technically there are minor differences between the two. Cladograms show the relationships in a graphic that looks like a tree with branches connected to a common ancestry.
What is a cladogram. Comments 1 evolution review guide. Key included for all four practice cladogram worksheets that work try related products.
Each branch represents a new distinct trait that was not seen in the group lower on the tree. In the past biologists would group organisms based solely on their physical appearance. Biology accel name key pd cladogram analysis background information.
It is based on phylogeny which is the study of evolutionary relationships. Displaying top 8 worksheets found for cladogram answer key. Rex cladogram additional data.
A cladogram is a diagram that shows evolutionary relationships among groups. A cladogram is a diagram that shows relationships between species. It is based on phylogeny which is the study of evolutionary relationships.
The worksheets allow students to practice reading cladograms. Some of the worksheets for this concept are fill out the following character mark an x if an cladogram work name period how to make a cladogram making cladograms background and procedures phylogeny cladogram basics cladogram work key practice problems ap biology phylogeny review work tree 1. Taxonomy cladogram dichotomous key and phylogenetic tree cla.
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Some of the worksheets for this concept are fill out the following character mark an x if an cladogram work key making cladograms background and procedures phylogeny ap biology phylogeny review work tree 1 practice problems essential knowledge phylogenetic trees and how to make a cladogram cladogram work name period.
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How would I represent this on a cladogram? - Biology
To collect, analyze, and interpret information about objects in order to classify them into a cladogram.
- copy of "Hardware Organism Key" student handout (PDF or HTML)
- copy of "Cladogram Basics" student handout (PDF or HTML)
- copy of "Nailing Cladistics" student handout (PDF or HTML)
- identical plastic bags with one of each of the materials listed on the "Hardware Organism Key" student handout
- 11- x 17-inch sheet of paper
Biological organisms are traditionally classified according to like, or constant, characteristics. However, to show how organisms have evolved over time to be different, scientists sometimes develop a family tree of how they may have evolved, a method known as cladistics. (See Activity Answer for more information.) Students will use common nails, screws, and bolts to simulate the process of applying cladistics to living organisms or fossil life forms. Note: Point out that students' models will differ from how living organisms actually evolve—the inanimate objects they will be using already have a fixed set of traits and do not represent true biological evolutionary relationship that living organisms exhibit.
Collect the materials listed. (You may choose your own "organisms" and create your own organism key, if you prefer.)
For Part 1, assign students to teams and provide each team with a plastic bag of the materials and a copy of the "Nailing Cladistics" student handout and each student with a copy of the "Hardware Organism Key" student handout. Have each team first classify the organisms using a dichotomous key that organizes organisms by constant characteristics. Discuss each team's results and variations among team decisions.
For Part II, provide each student with a copy of the "Cladogram Basics" student handout, and each team with a large sheet of paper for its final cladogram.
Have students list the characteristics of the hardware organisms and make a table of all the traits. Have them analyze and use the information in the table to create rough drafts of their cladograms. Have each team prepare a final cladogram.
After all teams have finished, display the cladograms. Have each team explain its cladogram and reasons for where objects were placed. Did all teams agree? Discuss similarities and differences.
To conclude, have students compare cladistics and more traditional taxonomy. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each?
As an extension, have students add other fasteners, such as clamps, to the mix of objects to see how it changes the cladogram.
Explanation of Hardware Dimensions
The numbers below the hardware organisms listed on the "Hardware Organism Key" student handout signify:
20d 4-inch = 20d represents 4-inches (10.16-cm)*
Wood and sheet metal screws
10 x 2-inch = #10 screw x 2-inches (5.08-cm)**
Stove bolt, carriage bolt, and machine screws
10-24 x 1-inch = #10 screw-24 thread per inch x 1-inch (2.54-cm)**
*The "d" at one time represented pennyweight and would describe the number of pennies needed to buy 100 nails. A 20d nail is 0.192 inches (0.45-cm) in diameter.
** A #10 screw is 0.190 inches (0.48-cm) in diameter.
Cladistics is a way of sorting organisms based on characteristics that were derived from a common ancestor. Cladograms often do not follow the more traditional methods of animal classification. While traditionally dinosaurs might be considered reptiles and birds classified as aves, on a cladogram the two would share the same line. Scientists generally agree that today's birds are evolutionary descendants of the dinosaurs.
The sample represents one possible way the organisms might have evolved showing evolution by thread count would be another possible way of building the cladogram. In this sample, all organisms are cylindrical, have a head, and have the same pennyweight (10) these traits are known as plesiomorphic (original) and are common to all the organisms. The apomorphic (advanced) characteristics shown below represent the evolutionary characteristics of the organisms.
Some differences might be seen in final team cladograms. Emphasize to the students that to be correct, the evolutionary development must be the basis, that is, the nail came before the screw. Scientists prefer to use the simplest cladogram that gives all the information. Cladograms drawn by scientists evolve as scientists learn more and simplify them.
Characteristics: no (0), yes (1)
1 has cylindrical object with head
2 has partly threaded shaft*
3 has completely threaded shaft
4 has flat bottom
5 has nut
6 has nut fixed to thread
Pojeta, John Jr., and Dale A. Springer. Evolution and the Fossil Record. Alexandria, VA: American Geological Institute, 2001.
Includes information about the fossil record, Darwin's theory, dating the fossil record, examples of evolution, and more. Accessible online at: www.agiweb.org/news/evolution/
Zimmer, Carl. At the Water's Edge: Fish with Fingers, Whales with Legs, and How Life Came Ashore but Then Went Back to Sea. New York: Touchstone Books, 1999.
Describes the latest fossil discoveries, outlines an evolutionary chronology, and gives insights into macroevolution.
NOVA Online—The Missing Link
Provides program-related articles, interviews, interactive activities, and resources.
Explains many different reasons for classification and classification schemes, including cladistics.
Evolution—All in the Family
Offers an interactive way to explore evolutionary relationships by building phylogenic trees and learning about "outgroups."
Evolution & the Nature of Science Institutes: Transitional Fossils
Describes transitional fossils, compares and contrasts features of early "mammal-like" reptiles with those of mammals, explains several reasons for gaps in fossil records, and lists the main findings from the vertebrate fossil record so far.
The "Nailing Cladistics" activity aligns with the following National Science Education Standards:
Science Standard C:
Diversity and adaptations of organisms
Millions of species of animals, plants, and microorganisms are alive today. Although different species might look dissimilar, the unity among organisms becomes apparent from an analysis of internal structures, the similarity of their chemical processes, and the evidence of common ancestry.
Biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over many generations. Species acquire many of their unique characteristics through biological adaptation, which involves the selection of naturally occurring variations in populations. Biological adaptations include changes in structures, behaviors, or physiology that enhance survival and reproductive success in a particular environment.
Science Standard C:
The great diversity of organisms is the result of more than 3.5 billion years of evolution that has filled every available niche with life forms.
The millions of different species of plants, animals, and microorganisms that live on earth today are related by descent from common ancestors.