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What magnification do I need to see blood cells?

What magnification do I need to see blood cells?


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If I want to buy a microscope for my kids to be able to view single celled creatures and blood cells, about what magnification is required? A Celestron Pentaview digital scope claims up to 600×. Is that going to be sufficient? I somehow get the impression that I'd need 2000× or better, but I'm having trouble verifying any information about magnifications via my good friend Google.


Depending on how much detail you want to see, 400X (as Chris commented) is definitely sufficient. Remember, the lens(es) under/over the stage are labeled 10X, 20X, 40X, etc., while the eyepiece is generally 10X or perhaps 20X (multiplying the two together gives the final magnification). If your target magnification is 400X, then get a 400X scope - it doesn't need to be rated any higher than the highest magnification you want. 600X sounds nice, it's actually higher than the (non-digital) scopes I routinely use for examining mammalian cell cultures. 400-600X should give a very clear detail of both red and white blood cells.


Just my 2-cents worth as visual add-on to @MattDMo 's answer:


Blood smear showing red blood cells and two white blood cells at 400x. Source: Microscope Master


Human red blood cells 1000x. Source: Wikipedia


Human white blood cells 2000x. The small dots (red arrow) are Diplococcus gonorrhea bacteria (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), each ~0.5 micrometers in diameter. Some of the neutrophils have phagocytosed bacteria. Source: Waynes World


Red blood cells visualized by scanning electron miscroscopy. Source: Pinterest.
Note: for illustrative and comparative purposes only; electron microscopy is not the most advisable method for home use.


Buying a Microscopefor Live Blood Analysis

Entering the world of microscopes for the first time can be daunting, however our courses will familiarise you with the necessary equipment, and teach you how to set up, use and care for your own microscope.

Unlike other training providers, we do not sell microscopes ourselves for the simple reason that these are complex pieces of scientific equipment that should be supplied and serviced by professional optics companies.

We do, however, have many years of experience using microscopes for Live & Dry Blood Analysis and have tried out several options which we are happy to recommend to our students.


What magnification is needed to see a virus

3. At 400x magnification you will be able to see bacteria, blood cells and protozoans swimming around. Researchers report this week that they have constructed the world’s most powerful optical microscope, allowing scientists to see objects the size of a virus. Science. At 1000x magnification you will be able to see these same items, but you will be able to see them even closer up. Favourite answer. List the 2 main components of a virus. At 1000x magnification you will be able to see 0.180mm, or 180 microns. Below is a list of your field of view at different magnifications. red blood cells 6 - 8 um (micrometers) you need electron microscope Details of the specimen now start to appear. why couldn't you see a virus with your microscope even if you increased the eyepiece lens magnification to 100x? west nile virus 40 - 60 nm (nano-meters) sars virus 80 - 120 nm. An amoeba can be seen with 400X. For starters, you need to have a magnification that goes up to 1000x and cannot be lower than 400x. Microscopes enhance our sense of sight – they allow us to look directly at things that are far too small to view with the naked eye. 2. Why is the maximum resolution and magnification of a light microscope less than the electron microscope? What type of microscope is typically used in classrooms? Virus - Virus - Size and shape: The amount and arrangement of the proteins and nucleic acid of viruses determine their size and shape. The greater the magnification, the smaller the actual diameter of the . Trying to see bacteria with the help of an average compound microscope may not be such a good idea due to certain factors. This light is used because of the wavelength. Total magnification is ocular*objective, and many microscopes offer the possibility to attach a camera, either additionally or as replacement ocular. Early on in my research I discovered that viruses have no color as they are smaller than the wavelength of light. Biology. In order to see bacteria, you will need to view them under the magnification of a microscopes as bacteria are too small to be observed by the naked eye. So 50x magnification is (50 times what you see with your naked eye). Stamps - stamp collectors most commonly use 20x magnification. Printed circuit boards - between 10x-40x zoom magnification typically makes viewing details and flaws on printed circuit boards easier. What magnification is needed to see a virus? This scanning electron microscope image shows SARS-CoV-2 (yellow) among human cells (pink). 400x: This magnification is useful for looking inside cells. Why Couldn’t You See A Virus With Your Microscope Even If You Increased The Eyepiece Lens Magnification To 100X 5. A light microscope usually is equipped with 10X, 40X and 100X objectives, giving 100X, 400X and 1000X magnifications. that is a great thing, as you can take pictures and zoom in (real magnification will not change, but still, some things are easier to see that way) or later tweak the colors or contrast. The depth of field is still comparatively large, so it still might be possible to see the whole specimen in focus. The nucleic acid and proteins of each class of viruses assemble themselves into a structure called a nucleoprotein, or nucleocapsid. What is the purpose of a vaccine? To see a virus, you should get an electron microscope. The larger the Aperture, the more Magnification … “The spikes on the surface of coronaviruses give this virus family its name – corona, which is Latin for “crown,” NIAID said. Remember, the lens (es) under/over the stage are labeled 10X, 20X, 40X, etc., while the eyepiece is generally 10X or perhaps 20X (multiplying the two together gives the final magnification). In this Amateur Microscopy video I compare three different techniques for observing bacteria under the microscope:a. staining bacteriab. Magnification. At this magnification, we … 4. Molds are easy to see at 100x magnification, yeast at 400x magnification, and bacteria are usually hard to see unless you go to 1000x magnification. At 400x magnification you will be able to see bacteria, blood cells and protozoans swimming around. Light microscope. What magnification do you need to see bacteria? Then image is then placed on a digital computer screen for analyzing. It is referenced as a multiple of what you can see greater than with your naked eye. Laser light scan across the specimen with the aid of scanning mirrors. Depending on how much detail you want to see, 400X (as Chris commented) is definitely sufficient. If you have prepared slides of cell divisions, then you are able to see … Skip to main content area Home About Us What magnification to see viruses phase contrastc. Therefore, the microscope you intend … Coins - it is best to view coins anywhere between 10x-30x magnification. 3. What kind of microscope is needed to see a virus? 40 times. Most bacteria are 0.2 um in diameter and 2-8 um in length with a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. What is meant by “host cell” Can viruses become zoonotic (infect both humans and animals)? At 400x magnification you will be able to see 0.45mm, or 450 microns. However, if you need more information to identify a bacterium, in college we used a 1000X magnification. The average bacterium is 1000 nanometres long and can be resolved using a light microscope, Diffraction limits resolution to approximately 0.2 micrometre so it … At 100x magnification you will be able to see 2mm. viruses are too small to be seen in a light microscope, however viruses can be seen with an electron microscope with 100,000x magnification What is the lowest total magnification that her microscope would have been able to see using the scanning lens. The images taken of the sunflower with the moth pupa were taken with a low power or stereo microscope. Draw a Bacteriophage (basic virus) List the 2 differences between a virus and a single-celled organelle (Paramecium). Electron microscope. At 1000x magnification you will be able to see these same items, but you will be able to see them even closer up. At this magnification, you can see the bacteria's shape (round, long,etc) and colony formation (ie: do the bacteria form a chain or simply separate after dividing). Bacteria - 400x magnification is required in order to identify bacteria. This microscope uses a laser light. You cannot see individual cells because it has a low magnification. When Looking At Unstained Material, Do You Need More Or Less Light Than What Is Needed To View A Stained Preparation? IMAGES: What New Coronavirus Looks Like Under The Microscope The images were made using scanning and transmission electron microscopes … This is essentially how far you can “zoom in” on an object. Why Is It Convenient To Have A Parfocal Microscope 4. They do this by making things appear bigger (magnifying them) and at the same time increasing the amount of detail we can see (increasing our ability to distinguish between two objects or ‘resolve’ them). An electron microscope has a much greater useful magnification than an optical microscope because it can resolve smaller details. From deep within the soil to inside the digestive tract of humans. Bacteria can be … Since a virus is far smaller than a typical cell (much smaller than a prokaryote) a virus cannot be seen by a regular microscope. However comparing the size of these organisms can be difficult without a reference. But although microbiologists around the world have been using the virus to try and develop a vaccine, many of us non-scientists haven't actually seen what this new coronavirus looks like.. 11.


What help do you need?


Types of light microscopes

The bright field microscope is best known to students and is most likely to be found in a classroom. Better equipped classrooms and labs may have dark field and/or phase contrast optics. Differential interference contrast, Nomarski, Hoffman modulation contrast and variations produce considerable depth of resolution and a three dimensional effect. Fluorescence and confocal microscopes are specialized instruments, used for research, clinical, and industrial applications.

Other than the compound microscope, a simpler instrument for low magnification use may also be found in the laboratory. The stereo microscope, or dissecting microscope usually has a binocular eyepiece tube, a long working distance, and a range of magnifications typically from 5x to 35 or 40x. Some instruments supply lenses for higher magnifications, but there is no improvement in resolution. Such "false magnification" is rarely worth the expense.


What magnification do I need to see blood cells? - Biology

That gizmo pictured to the left is a BIG deal. It literally opened up worlds of organisms and information to scientists. It's importance in the history of medicine and our understanding of disease should not be underestimated.
That gizmo is a compound light microscope.
For you, the biology student, it is perhaps the most important tool for you to understand. By the time you are done toying with these pages (& reading your text & paying attention in class), you should be able to :

THE PARTS
Match the names in the word bank with the numbered parts in the picture.


arm
base
body tube
coarse focus knob
diaphragm
fine focus knob
high power objective lens
light source
low power objective lens
nosepiece
ocular (eyepiece)
stage
stage clips

After you have jotted down the numbers & your answers, check your work here.

WHAT THE PARTS DO
Now it's time to memorize the function of each microscope part.
To help you practice, here's a matching exercise.


arm
base
body tube
coarse focus knob
diaphragm
fine focus knob
high power objective lens
light source
low power objective lens
nosepiece
ocular (eyepiece)
stage
stage clips
1. the lens you look through, magnifies the specimen
2. supports the microscope
3. holds objective lenses
4. magnify the specimen (2)
5. supports upper parts of the microscope, used to carry the microscope
6. used to focus when using the high power objective
7. where the slide is placed
8. regulates the amount of light reaching the objective lens
9. used to focus when using the low power objective
10. provides light
11. hold slide in place on the stage

magnification mag-ne-fe-'ka-shen n 1. apparent enlargement of an object 2. the ratio of image size to actual size
A magnification of "100x" means that the image is 100 times bigger than the actual object.

resolution ez-e-loo-shen n 1. clarity, sharpness 2. the ability of a microscope to show two very close points separately

1. Why is called a "compound" light microscope ?
"Compound" just refers to the fact that there a two lenses magnifying the specimen at the same time, the ocular & one of the objective lenses.

2. If two lenses are always magnifying the specimen
(see #1), how do you figure out the total magnification being used ?
You multiply the power of the ocular and the power of the objective being used. total mag. = ocular x objective For example, if the ocular is 10x and the low power objective is 20x, then the total magnification under low power is 10 x 20 = 200x.
Easy, ain't it ?

3. How do you carry one of those things ?
With two hands, one holding the arm & the other under the base. Kinda like a football. (They're expensive, we don't want to drop 'em.)

4. What about focussing ? How do you do that ?
Here's what I suggest. Once you have your slide in place on the stage, make sure the low power objective (the shortest objective lens) is in position & turn the coarse focus until the lens is at a position closest to the stage. Set the diaphragm to its largest opening (where it allows the most light through). Then, while looking through the ocular, begin to slowly turn the coarse focus. Turn slowly & watch carefully. When the specimen is focussed under low power, move the slide so that what you want to see is dead-center in your field of view, & then switch to a higher power objective. DO NOT touch the coarse focus again --- you will break something ! Once you are using a high power objective, focus using the fine focus knob ONLY. Be sure to center your specimen before switching to a higher power objective or it may disappear. More on that in a minute .

MICROSCOPIC MEASUREMENTS

Estimating Specimen Size :
The area of the slide that you see when you look through a microscope is called the "Field of View". If you know how wide your field of view is, you can estimate the size of things you see in the field of view. Figuring out the width of the field of view is easy --- all you need is a thin metric ruler.

By carefully placing a thin metric ruler on the stage (where a slide would usually go) and focussing under low power, we can measure the field of view in millimeters. Through the microscope it would look something like what you see here on the left. The total width of the field of view in this example is less than 1.5 mm. A fair estimate would be 1.3 or 1.4 mm.
(Relax, it's an estimate).

Now millimeters is a nice metric unit, but when we use a MICROscope we tend to use MICROmeters. To convert from millimeters to micrometers, move the decimal 3 places to the right. Our 1.3 mm estimate becomes 1300 micrometers.

Now we can get the ruler out of the way, prepare a slide, focus, and estimate the size of things we see ! (Exciting, ain't it ?)

For example, if something we were looking at took up half of the field of view, its size would be approximately 1/2 x 1300 micrometers = 650 micrometers. If something appeared to be 1/5 of the field of view, we would estimate its size to be 1/5 x 1300 = 260 micrometers.

Calculating Specimen Size :
Because the high power objective is so close to the stage, we can't measure the width of the field of view under high power directly. The ruler just doesn't fit between the objective & the stage. No problem. We can use the width of the field of view under low power (which we measure using the steps above) and the relationship between the low & high power magnifications to mathematically calculate the width of the field of view under high power.

First of all memorize this :

For example : if the low power objective is 20x and the high power objective is 40x, then under high power we will see 20/40 or 1/2 of the area of the slide we saw under low power.

This is something that requires some practice. So here ya go. Calculate the answers to these examples on some paper & then click on "answers".
(You'll learn more if you try it yourself first.)

Example #1:

ocular power = 10x
low power objective = 20x
high power objective = 50x

a) What is the highest magnification you could get using this microscope ?
b) If the diameter of the low power field is 2 mm, what is the diameter of the high power field of view in mm? in micrometers ?
c) If 10 cells can fit end to end in the low power field of view, how many of those cells would you see under high power ?

ocular power = 10x
low power objective = 10x
high power objective = 40x

The diagram shows the edge of a millimeter ruler viewed under the microscope with the lenses listed above. The field shown is the low power field of view.

a) What is the approximate width of the field of view in micrometers ?
b) What would be the width of the field of view under high power ?
c) If 5 cells fit across the high power field of view, what is the approximate size of each cell ?

ocular = 10x
low power objective = 20x
high power objective = 40x

The picture shows the low power field of view for the microscope with the lenses listed above.
a) What is the approximate size of the cell in micrometers ?
b) What would be the high power field of view ?
c) How many cells like the one in the picture could fit in the high power field of view ?

WELL, HOPE YOU LEARNED A TON.
KEEP PLUGGIN' AWAY.

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Using the Microscope : the Answers

Answers to THE PARTS :
1) base 2) light source 3) diaphragm 4) stage 5) stage clips
6) low power objective lens 7) high power objective lens 8) nosepiece 9) arm 10) fine focus knob 11) body tube 12) coarse focus knob 13) ocular (eyepiece)



Answers to 'WHAT THE PARTS DO' :
1. ocular
2. base
3. nosepiece
4. low power objective lens, high power objective lens
5. arm
6. fine focus knob
7. stage
8. diaphragm - by the way, this is the NYS Regents favorite microscope part
9. coarse focus knob
10. light source (lamp or mirror)
11. stage clips

Answers to 'WHAT YOU SEE' :
ANSWER to Example #1:

ocular power = 10x
low power objective = 20x
high power objective = 50x

a) What is the highest magnification you could get using this microscope ? 500x
Ocular x high power = 10 x 50 = 500. (We can only use 2 lenses at a time, not all three.)
b) If the diameter of the low power field is 2 mm, what is the diameter of the high power field of view in mm ? .8 mm
The ratio of low to high power is 20/50. So at high power you will see 2/5 of the low power field of view (2 mm). 2/5 x 2 = 4/5 = .8 mm
in micrometers ? 800 micrometers
To convert mm to micrometers, move the decimal 3 places to the right (multiply by 1000). .8 mm x 1000 = 800 micrometers
d) If 10 cells can fit end to end in the low power field of view, how many of those cells would you see under high power ? 4 cells.
We can answer this question the same way we go about "b" above. At high power we would see 2/5 of the low field. 2/5 x 10 cells = 4 cells would be seen under high power.

<back to example #1

ocular power = 10x
low power objective = 10x
high power objective = 40x

The diagram shows the edge of a millimeter ruler viewed under the microscope with the lenses listed above. The field shown is the low power field of view.

a) What is the approximate width of the field of view in micrometers ? 3500 - 3800 micrometers
Each white space is 1 mm. We can see approximately 3 1/2 (or so) white spaces. That is equivalent to 3.5 mm, which converts to 3500 micrometers. Any answer in the range above would be OK.
b) What would be the width of the field of view under high power ?
875 micrometers
The ratio of low to high power for this microscope is 10/40 or 1/4. So, under high power we will see 1/4 of the low power field of view. 1/4 x 3500 micrometers (from "a" above) = 875 micrometers.
c) If 5 cells fit across the high power field of view, what is the approximate size of each cell ?
175 micrometers
If 5 cells fit in the high power field of view (which we determined is 875 micrometers in "b"), then the size of 1 cell = 875/5 = 175 micrometers.

<back to questions #2

ocular = 10x
low power objective = 20x
high power objective = 40x

The picture shows the low power field of view for the microscope with the lenses listed above.

a) What is the approximate size of the cell in micrometers ?
500 micrometers
First, we have to visualize how many of those cells could fit across the field --- about 4. So 2 mm (the width of the field) / 4 = .5 mm, which converts to 500 micrometers.
b) What would be the high power field of view ?
1000 micrometers
The ratio of low to high power for this scope is 20/40, or 1/2. So we will see 1/2 of the low power field under high power. 1/2 x 2 mm = 1mm, which converts to 1000 micrometers.
c) How many cells like the one in the picture could fit in the high power field of view ?
2 cells
Again the ratio of low to high power is 20/40, or 1/2. If we can see 4 cells across the low field of view we will see 1/2 as many in the high field of view. 1/2 x 4 = 2 cells.

<back to question #3


Microscopy

Cells vary in size. With few exceptions, individual cells cannot be seen with the naked eye, so scientists use microscopes (micro- = &ldquosmall&rdquo -scope = &ldquoto look at&rdquo) to study them. A microscope is an instrument that magnifies an object. Most photographs of cells are taken with a microscope these images can also be called micrographs.

The optics of a microscope&rsquos lenses change the orientation of the image that the user sees. A specimen that is right-side up and facing right on the microscope slide will appear upside-down and facing left when viewed through a microscope, and vice versa. Similarly, if the slide is moved left while looking through the microscope, it will appear to move right, and if moved down, it will seem to move up. This occurs because microscopes use two sets of lenses to magnify the image. Because of the manner by which light travels through the lenses, this system of two lenses produces an inverted image (binocular, or dissecting microscopes, work in a similar manner, but they include an additional magnification system that makes the final image appear to be upright).


What magnification is required to view DNA during mitosis??

I remember back in highschool Biology class I had the opportunity to look at plant cells undergoing various stages of mitosis. I remember being fascinated by how clearly visible each cell wall was and how clearly I could see the strands of DNA and the cells duplicating during anaphase. I always wondered how much more magnification it would take to actually be able to see the nucleobases.

You can't see individual strands of DNA without an electron microscope (very high magnification). What you saw under the microscope were chromosomes, which is DNA packaged together so tightly that makes the strands negatively supercoiled and will break without the help of various proteins inside the cell. These chromosomes are what come apart during anaphase. In addition, even the chromosomes can't be seen under an optical microscope without a stain. The cells you observed in high school were dead and stained. It is extremely difficult to see this in live cells.

Even with electron microscopy, individual bases can't be seen. You can only see the backbone of the DNA molecules.

I always wondered how much more magnification it would take to actually be able to see the nucleobases.

Bases are so small you have to move away from "regular" (light, electrons) magnification based microscopy and towards other technologies. Scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy give you a way to directly 'image' materials. However these won't produce images of nucleotides in quite the way you may be envisaging. With these technologies we move a "charged" tip over a surface and by measuring the changes in the forces the tip experiences we can visualise the surface here's two such papers:

If you look at some of the images in those papers they probably don't produce the kind of images of molecules that you might have been imagining. Atomic and/or molecular resolution imaging is currently only achieveable by two methods X-ray crystalography and NMR. In X-ray crystallography weɽ prepare a crystallised sample of purified DNA, then we fire a beam of x-rays at the crystal and by measuring how the beam is deflected by the crystal we can infer where in the crystal the atoms are and in turn we can reconstitute the structure the bases and the DNA strand. NMR is basically a very, very high powered version of the MRI machines you find in hospitals, using radiowaves and high powered magnets we can probe a purified sample of DNA to find out information about the relative location of atoms in our sample. Like the x-ray method this information can be used to reconstitute the specific structure of the nucleotides and DNA strand

You can look up a whole world of atomic resolution imaging for proteins and DNA at the RCSB Protein Data Bank

There are quite a few structures for DNA deposited, here's a good one:

tldr in short we can't really magnify our way to resolving individual nucleobases but there are number of alternative imaging technologies that can be used for this

edit: tldr 2: Molecular imaging is typically at the sub-Angstrom scale. With respects to conventional microscopy you might regard this as representing a factor magnification around 10 8 to 10 11 (given that an Angstrom is about 10 -10 metres.


Example: Calculating Size of Object From its Microscopic Image

Question

If the measured length of the magnified beetle larva image shown below was 2 centimetres (20 mm), the ocular magnification of the microscope is 5X and you are using an objective lens magnification of 10X, what is the actual length of the larva in millimetres?

Solution

Calculate the total magnification

Use the same formula as above

Now calculate the size of the object

If the image is 50X larger than the object, what is the size of the object? Calculate this by simple proportion given in the formula below.


Use of Microscope

Set the microscope on a stable countertop or table and plug it into a nearby outlet. Turn the coarse focus knob to lower the stage as far as possible and turn the microscope’s lenses so the shortest one, which is the lowest magnification, is pointing down.

Place one of the slides on the microscope stage with the center of the slide over the hole through which the light will shine. Clip it on with the stage clips and turn on the microscope.

Look through the eyepiece and turn the rough focus knob until you can clearly see the slide. Center the slide so the cells are in the middle of your field of vision.

Rotate the lenses so the next highest magnification is pointing down.

Look through the eyepiece again and use the fine focus knob to bring the cells into focus. The coarse focus knob might move the stage too close to the lens at this magnification. If you cannot focus the cells, turn the coarse focus knob only a little bit to avoid damaging the microscope.

Rotate to a higher power lens and focus the microscope again to see the cells under even higher magnification.


Watch the video: κύτταρα του αίματος (May 2022).