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19.6: Current Research Directions - Biology

19.6: Current Research Directions - Biology



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Several large-scale data production e↵orts such as ENCODE, modENCODE and Epigenome Roadmap projects are currently in progress and therefore there are several opportunities to computationally ana- lyze this new data. There are studies being done that look at diet and exercise and their e↵ects on disease susceptibility.

Another interesting area of research is the analysis of epigenetic changes in disease. Current research in the Computational Biology Group at MIT is looking at the link between chromatin states and Alzheimer’s disease. A selection of papers in epigenetics-disease linkage has been provided below.


COVID-19: Could your earliest symptoms predict how ill you’ll get?

The symptoms experienced in the first few days of a COVID-19 infection could help predict the course a patient’s illness will follow.

Have you read?

That’s one of the initial conclusions from a team of researchers from King’s College London in the UK. Their research has identified six possible sub-divisions of COVID-19, using machine learning to analyze data from a symptom-tracking app.

These findings - from a pre-print paper not yet peer-reviewed - reflect how the thinking regarding the disease is evolving and how technologies are being leveraged to fight the disease.

What is the World Economic Forum doing about the coronavirus outbreak?

Responding to the COVID-19 pandemic requires global cooperation among governments, international organizations and the business community, which is at the centre of the World Economic Forum’s mission as the International Organization for Public-Private Cooperation.

Since its launch on 11 March, the Forum’s COVID Action Platform has brought together 1,667 stakeholders from 1,106 businesses and organizations to mitigate the risk and impact of the unprecedented global health emergency that is COVID-19.

The platform is created with the support of the World Health Organization and is open to all businesses and industry groups, as well as other stakeholders, aiming to integrate and inform joint action.

As an organization, the Forum has a track record of supporting efforts to contain epidemics. In 2017, at our Annual Meeting, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) was launched – bringing together experts from government, business, health, academia and civil society to accelerate the development of vaccines. CEPI is currently supporting the race to develop a vaccine against this strand of the coronavirus.

Most people can name some key COVID-19 symptoms, thanks to media reports or - unfortunately - personal experience. The most well-known symptoms include fever, shortness of breath, fatigue, muscle aches, headaches and the infamous persistent cough.

As more has been learned about the illness, the list of symptoms has grown. Loss of sense of taste and smell (ageusia and anosmia, respectively) was detected anecdotally before being accepted by medical bodies around the world.

The King’s College team recently scrutinized data from around 1,600 people with confirmed COVID-19 infections in the UK and US. Each had logged symptoms using an app during March and April. A second dataset of around 1,000 app users from the UK, US and Sweden who had logged their symptoms during May was also examined.

The researchers say they have been able to group symptoms into six divisions, which they say could indicate how unwell a patient could become.

Their six suggested clusters are:

1. Flu-like with no fever: Headache, loss of smell, muscle pains, cough, sore throat, chest pain, no fever.

2. Flu-like with fever: Headache, loss of smell, cough, sore throat, hoarseness, fever, loss of appetite.

3. Gastrointestinal: Headache, loss of smell, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, sore throat, chest pain, no cough.

4. Severe level one, fatigue: Headache, loss of smell, cough, fever, hoarseness, chest pain, fatigue.

5. Severe level two, confusion: Headache, loss of smell, loss of appetite, cough, fever, hoarseness, sore throat, chest pain, fatigue, confusion, muscle pain.

6. Severe level three, abdominal and respiratory: Headache, loss of smell, loss of appetite, cough, fever, hoarseness, sore throat, chest pain, fatigue, confusion, muscle pain, shortness of breath, diarrhoea, abdominal pain.

The six categories represent a spectrum of breathing difficulties. Understanding this range could help with clinical management and matching patients with the right care effectively and efficiently.

Analyzing patient-provided information on symptoms and their outcomes, the research team says that while 16% of Group 1 patients were admitted to hospital, almost half of those in Group 6 were.

They also found that patients in 4, 5 and 6 tended to be older, and were more likely to have pre-existing conditions ranging from diabetes to obesity.

The specific combination of symptoms reported by a patient was found to be a potential indicator of whether they would become severely ill.

While more research must be done, the work underscores the importance of institutions around the world contributing to the wider pool of global COVID-19 knowledge.

The coronavirus crisis has sparked a range of global collaborations including the COVID Action Platform from the World Economic Forum. So far, more than 350 public bodies and over 850 private organizations around the world have joined the Platform, collaborating on 35 projects ranging from healthcare delivery and vaccines to supply chains and economic support.

The research also demonstrates the power of new technologies in aiding medical research. Said Sebastien Ourselin, a professor of healthcare engineering at King’s College London and a senior author of the study: “Being able to gather big datasets through the app and apply machine learning to them is having a profound impact on our understanding of the extent and impact of COVID-19, and human health more widely."


Sonja M. Best, Ph.D.

The innate immune response is rapidly engaged after virus infection and functions to limit virus replication and mobilize adaptive immune responses. Viruses have evolved diverse strategies to suppress this critical host response and facilitate virus dissemination. In part, virus pathogenesis is a function of both the quality of the innate response evoked and the evasion strategies encoded by the invading pathogen. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underpinning immune activation and virus evasion will lead to improved vaccine design and novel therapeutics for treatment of both infectious and inflammatory disease.

Figure 1: Human dendritic cells infected with LGTV and treated with type I IFN. The IFN-stimulated phosphorylation and nuclear localization of STAT1 (green) is inhibited in cells infected with LGTV (red).

Our current research program is shaped by the NIAID programmatic objectives in biodefense and emerging infectious disease research, namely basic research of pathogen biology and host response to develop effective vaccines and immunotherapeutics. We use flaviviruses (particularly members of the tick-borne encephalitis virus [TBEV] complex and West Nile virus [WNV]) as the primary model of infection to uncover novel cellular proteins requisite for antiviral innate immune responses and to identify virus-encoded mechanisms that antagonize these responses. These studies involve research of viruses at BSL2, BSL3 and BSL4. Our three main areas of research are outlined below.

  1. Mechanisms utilized by pathogenic viruses to modulate host innate immunity. Type I interferon (IFN) is essential to protection from flavivirus infection and has been used clinically as a potential therapeutic, albeit with limit success. This may be due to the observation that all flaviviruses examined to date antagonize IFN-dependent responses by suppressing JAK-STAT signal transduction. We originally identified NS5 as the major IFN antagonist encoded by flaviviruses, initially using Langat virus (LGTV a member of the TBEV complex of flaviviruses) and later using WNV. Although other nonstructural proteins contribute to suppression of JAK-STAT signaling, studies by our laboratory and others suggest that NS5 is the most potent of the IFN antagonist proteins encoded by all vector-borne flaviviruses examined thus far. Hence, determining the mechanism(s) by which NS5 impedes signaling is essential to understand flavivirus pathogenesis and may lead to new therapeutic targets.
  2. The role of novel IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in host resistance to virus infection. It is important to understand the mechanisms underlying the anti-viral effects of IFN by identifying the function of ISGs with anti-viral activity. In particular, we are examining the role of tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins in host resistance to flavivirus replication. Many TRIM proteins are ISGs that mediate species-specific virus restriction or regulate host innate immunity. TRIM protein function is often dependent on their E3 Ubiquitin ligase activity. Therefore, we are also examining the role of ubiquitin in flavivirus replication and immune evasion.
  3. The importance of dendritic cell (DC) function to anti-viral innate and adaptive immune responses. It is essential to translate our findings to immunologically relevant cell types and animal models to understand the roles that induction and evasion of innate immunity has in development of adaptive immunity and in virus pathogenesis. We are using primary DCs and animal models to examine the importance of DCs as initial targets of infection, the role of DC pathogen recognition receptors in the immune response to infection, and how the mechanisms utilized by flaviviruses to modulate DC function affect adaptive immunity and virus pathogenesis.

Dr. Best received her Ph.D. in biochemistry and molecular biology from the Australian National University where she studied the pathogenesis of myxoma virus, a poxvirus. She conducted her postdoctoral research at Rocky Mountain Laboratories (RML) on the complex role of apoptosis in the replication of parvoviruses. She stayed at RML as a Research Fellow and then a Staff Scientist to investigate virus-host interactions involved in flavivirus pathogenesis. It was during this time that she developed her interests in innate immunity and the molecular mechanisms utilized by flaviviruses to evade these critical host responses. In 2009, Dr. Best established an independent laboratory as a tenure-track investigator to expand her studies on interactions between pathogenic viruses and the host immune response. In 2011, Dr. Best was awarded a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers for her work on flavivirus suppression of innate immune responses.

Dr. Sonja Best, a virologist at NIAID's Rocky Mountain Laboratories, won a 2010 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE), the highest honor bestowed by the U.S. government on scientists and engineers beginning their independent careers.

Shelly J. Robertson, Ph.D., Staff Scientist
Kristin McNally, Ph.D., Molecular Biologist
Gail Sturdevant, Biologist
Rebecca Broeckel, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Fellow
Abhilash Chiramel, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Fellow
Sanket Ponia, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Fellow
Emily Speranza, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Fellow

Dutta M, Robertson SJ, Okumura A, Scott DP, Chang J, Weiss JM, Sturdevant GL, Feldmann F, Haddock E, Chiramel AI, Ponia SS, Dougherty JD, Katze MG, Rasmussen AL, Best SM. A systems approach reveals MAVS signaling in myeloid cells as critical for resistance to ebola virus in murine models of infection. Cell Rep. 2017 Jan 1718(3):816-829.

Grant A, Ponia SS, Tripathi S, Balasubramaniam V, Miorin L, Sourisseau M, Schwarz MC, Sánchez-Seco MP, Evans MJ, Best SM, García-Sastre A. Zika virus targets human STAT2 to inhibit type I interferon signaling. Cell Host Microbe. Cell Host Microbe. 2016 Jun 819(6):882-90.

Marzi A, Robertson SJ, Haddock E, Feldmann F, Hanley PW, Scott DP, Strong JE, Kobinger G, Best SM, Feldmann H. VSV-EBOV rabidly protects macaques against infection with the 2014/15 ebola virus outbreak strain. Science. 2015 Aug 14349(6249):739-42.

Lubick KJ, Robertson SJ, McNally KL, Freedman BA, Rasmussen AL, Taylor RT, Walts AD, Tsuruda S, Sakai M, Ishizuka M, Boer EF, Foster EC, Chiramel AI, Addison CB, Green R, Kastner DL, Katze MG, Holland SM, Forlino A, Freeman AF, Boehm M, Yoshii K, Best SM. Flavivirus antagonism of type I interferon signaling reveals prolidase as a regulator of IFNAR1 surface expression. Cell Host Microbe. 2015 Jul 818(1):61-74.


Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies

Scientists at the NIAID Vaccine Research Center (VRC) and NIAID-supported scientists at other institutions are developing and testing multiple antibodies for the treatment of HIV. Antibodies are good candidates for treatment because they have few side effects and can be modified to ensure they last a long time in the body, suggesting that dosing could be every other month or even less often. Importantly, the antibodies under investigation can powerfully stop a wide range of HIV strains from infecting human cells in the laboratory and thus are known as broadly neutralizing antibodies, or bNAbs.

In the context of treatment, bNAbs can potentially thwart HIV in three ways:

  • By binding directly to the virus, preventing it from entering a cell and accelerating its elimination.
  • By binding to an HIV-infected cell, recruiting immune-system components that facilitate cell killing.
  • By binding to a key fragment of HIV, forming a complex that may lead to the stimulation of immune cells in a manner similar to a vaccine, thereby preparing the immune system for future encounters with the virus.

Clinical studies have established that giving infusions of certain bNAbs to people living with HIV can suppress the virus, albeit to a limited degree. Further studies have shown that treating people living with HIV with just one bNAb fosters the emergence of HIV strains that are resistant to the antibody. Thus, just as antiretroviral therapy requires a combination of drugs to effectively suppress HIV, it appears that antibody-based therapy will require a combination of either multiple bNAbs or bNAbs and long-acting drugs to suppress the virus. Studies in monkeys infected with a simian version of HIV have already demonstrated that combinations of complementary bNAbs powerfully suppress the virus for an extended period. NIAID is now funding and conducting clinical trials of this strategy for treating HIV in people.

In addition, scientists are engineering changes to known bNAbs to optimize them for HIV treatment and prevention applications. These changes are designed to increase the number of HIV strains an antibody can block, how long the antibody lasts in the body, how powerfully the antibody attaches to the virus, and how efficiently the antibody triggers the immune system to attack both the virus and HIV-infected cells.


An overview of selected pieces in the current literature concerning herbal research and development.

Although approximately 80 percent of people today depend upon herbal medication as a component of their primary healthcare according to the World Health Organization, there is still great concern about the safety and efficacy of herbal use [1]. While herbal medicine can potentially contribute to the advancement of healthcare, many major challenges must be overcome prior to the successful integration of herbal remedies into mainstream medicine. One of the major barriers is the current lack of accurate translations and interpretations of Chinese herbal texts and research by Western scientists. Indeed, for the incorporation of safe and effective herbs into the medical system to become a reality, more researchers and doctors need to be trained in both modern medicine and herbal compendium that has been accumulated since ancient times. Additionally, to establish credibility for herbal use in the modern settings, experience-based claims from Chinese herbal medical doctors must be transformed into evidence-based claims. Finally, the question of how to address the need for both individualizing (the basis of TCM) and standardizing (the basis of modern pharmacology) treatment with herbs must be settled. Once these issues are resolved, the prospect exists for widespread use of herbal medicine as a safe, effective, and affordable form of healthcare [2].

The following articles provides an overview of selected pieces in the current literature concerning herbal research and development:

Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

This 2007 article from Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine provides the history behind herbal medicine and the current challenges with the use of herbal remedies. The paper also provides a side-by-side comparison between the traditional use and scientific use of herbs, a list of factors that are essential in determining the efficacy and effectiveness of herbal treatments, an overview of pragmatic trials (PT) in traditional medicine, and a look into the future directions of herbal research, including high-throughput analysis combining genomic, proteomic and chemical data.

Journal of General Internal Medicine

This 2008 review article from the Ground Rounds at the University of California, San Francisco Medical Center provides an introduction to herbs, an overview of their regulation in the United States through the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), and the evidence for efficacy of commonly used herbs. Additionally, the paper includes a discussion of the concerns of safety, toxicity, and side effects associated with herbal medicine and the future changes that experts have proposed to increase the safety and efficacy of herbal medicine use.

Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Although governments, international agencies, and corporations are increasingly investing in herbal medicine research, numerous challenges remain unaddressed in this field. In this 2008 publication, the World Health Organization examines the “underappreciated dimensions of the ethical framework in which particularly difficult questions arise for international herbal medicine research: social value, scientific validity and favorable risk-benefit ratio.”

Dove Press Journal: Open Access Journal of Clinical Trials

While randomized control trials (RTCs) are considered the “gold standard” of allopathic research, RTCs are not the appropriate methodology for herbal research. This 2010 Dove Press Journal review article explains why and describes some possible research designs to overcome these challenges.

Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

This 2011 review article published in Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine provides the approaches to research and drug discovery in Chinese herbal medicine and highlights key points of discussion, including the fact that “an herbal remedy cannot be substituted by a single compound.”

In this 2011 perspectives article, medical treatments are illustrated as both an art and a science and emphasis is placed upon the need for more appropriate methods to test traditional Asian medicines. The necessity for incorporating personalized medicine into randomized controlled clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of traditional treatments is the central message of this outlook.

Journal of Ethnopharmacology

While there are many challenges associated with the successful integration of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) into Western medical practices, the advent of omic techniques in systems biology provides a promising route for the modernization and standardization of TCM research while maintaining the holistic and personalized qualities of TCM. Because Chinese herbal remedies are often complex mixtures of numerous phytocomplexes, it had previous been difficult to analyze the role different molecules played in the overall effect. Now, with high-throughput information-rich techniques, tools are available to generate a large amount of raw information and use factorial analytical models to generate a global view of the biological system. These methods are particularly appropriate for TCM research because they are non-reductive (allowing researchers to analyze multiple components at once rather than studying a single compound in isolation) and holistic (consistent with the foundational principles of TCM).

  1. Herbal Medicine. University of Maryland Medical Center.
    Available:
    http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/herbal-medicine-000351.htm#ixzz1i9ZzqMkX
  2. Cheng YC. Why and how to globalize Traditional Chinese Medicine. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 2011 1(1): 1-4. doi:10.6219/jtcm.2011.008-P http://www.jtcm.org/jtcm_n/manager_admin/upload_file/81/13179623781.pdf

By Shannon Wongvibulsin, BS Candidate, UCLA 2014
UCLA Center East-West Medicine, Staff Writer


Zhuang Research Lab

Understanding the mechanisms of cellular function and their dysfunction in disease requires a detailed picture of the molecular interactions in cells. In particular, we need imaging tools with single-molecule sensitivity, molecular-scale resolution, and dynamic imaging capability to allow direct visualization of molecular interactions in cells, as well as tools that can simultaneously image large numbers of genes, ideally at the genome scale, to probe how collective actions of these molecules give rise to cellular and tissue functions. The research in the Zhuang laboratory is aimed at developing such imaging methods and applying them to problems of biomedical interest.

Students and postdoctoral fellows in the Zhuang laboratory apply their diverse backgrounds in chemistry, physics, biology, and engineering to develop novel imaging methods, molecular probes, and image analysis algorithms, and to exploit these tools to study a variety of interesting biological problems, ranging from the structure of chromatin and chromosomes and the regulation of gene expression to sub-cellular structures in neurons and neuronal connectivity. Our current research is focused in three major areas: (1) super-resolution fluorescence microscopy, (2) single-cell transcriptome and genome imaging, (3) and single-molecule biology.

Click here for a more detailed description.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator
David B. Arnold Jr. Professor of Science
Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology
Professor of Physics


The Mediterranean diet beyond olive oil?

The current food pattern framework that we mentioned in the introduction assumes that the effect of the MedDiet goes beyond olive oil. Besides, most of the previously mentioned studies (8�,19,23*,24) did not specifically add the exclusive use of olive oil to the scoring systems used to classify participants regarding to their adherence to the MedDiet. This might be explained by the low prevalence of olive oil consumption in Sweden, the US, or the Netherlands. However, the use of olive oil is actually growing up in these countries. In any case, an appropriate definition of the traditional MedDiet should include it as the main culinary fat, together with an abundant daily use of extra-virgin olive oil (around 10-15% of total calories). Even though olive oil is not enough, these two items represent indisputable characteristics of the traditional MedDiet, supported by the screener used to deliver the intervention in the PREDIMED trial (31�). Therefore, the adequate transferability of the MedDiet to non-Mediterranean countries requires to incorporate olive oil as the main source of fat. This is supported by the dramatic beneficial results specifically found for extra-virgin olive oil in the PREDIMED randomized trial against type 2 diabetes (34), peripheral artery disease (35), atrial fibrillation (36) and breast cancer (37*). These effects seem to be, at least partially, mediated by the anti-inflammatory effects of polyphenols from extra-virgin olive oil and other less-known and challenging mechanisms (4*,38,39).


Endothelial Cell Dysfunction and the Pathobiology of Atherosclerosis

Dysfunction of the endothelial lining of lesion-prone areas of the arterial vasculature is an important contributor to the pathobiology of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Endothelial cell dysfunction, in its broadest sense, encompasses a constellation of various nonadaptive alterations in functional phenotype, which have important implications for the regulation of hemostasis and thrombosis, local vascular tone and redox balance, and the orchestration of acute and chronic inflammatory reactions within the arterial wall. In this review, we trace the evolution of the concept of endothelial cell dysfunction, focusing on recent insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie its pivotal roles in atherosclerotic lesion initiation and progression explore its relationship to classic, as well as more recently defined, clinical risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease consider current approaches to the clinical assessment of endothelial cell dysfunction and outline some promising new directions for its early detection and treatment.

Keywords: atherosclerosis endothelial cells homeostasis risk factors thrombosis.

© 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

Conflict of interest statement

DISCLOSURES: The authors have no conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise, related to the contents of this Review article.

Figures

Figure 1. Endothelial-derived Nitric Oxide: Production and…

Figure 1. Endothelial-derived Nitric Oxide: Production and Biological Actions


Coronavirus Research

Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers are working tirelessly to find ways to better understand, treat and eventually eliminate COVID-19 and the illness that results from infection.

Psychedelics Research and Psilocybin Therapy

The Johns Hopkins Center for Psychedelic and Consciousness Research is leading the way in exploring innovative treatments using psilocybin.


FCC Reports Broadband Unavailable to 21.3 Million Americans, BroadbandNow Study Indicates 42 Million Do Not Have Access

BroadbandNow Research manually checked availability of more than 11,000 addresses using Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Form 477 data as the “source of truth.” Based on the results, we estimate that 42 million Americans do not have the ability to purchase broadband internet.

Editor’s Note: A newer version of this report has been released. Click here to view our 2021 FCC over-reporting study.

The FCC’s Broadband Deployment Report states that 21.3 million Americans, or 6.5 percent of the population, lack access to broadband internet, including wired and fixed wireless connections. This figure relies upon semi-annual self-reporting by internet service providers (ISPs) using the FCC-mandated “Form 477.”

However, there is a widely acknowledged flaw with Form 477 reporting: if an ISP offers service to at least one household in a census block, then the FCC counts the entire census block as covered by that provider. BroadbandNow Research examined the magnitude of this flaw by manually checking internet availability using FCC data as the source of truth for randomly selected addresses.

Based on our research, we estimate that 42 million Americans do not have access to wired or fixed wireless broadband. Specifically, here’s what we did and how we arrived at this estimate:

  • BroadbandNow Research selected nine large ISPs with “check availability” tools. These tools allow users to enter an address and receive a response as to whether wired and/or fixed wireless service is available.
  • From there, we selected 11,663 addresses (from a set of more than 1 million) where at least one of these nine large ISPs offer service according to the FCC’s Form 477 data.
  • We checked each address/provider combination. We found that for 19.6 percent of combinations, the ISP’s tool indicates service is not available.
  • Address locations selected at random and include major internet markets like Dallas and Chicago as well as mid-size cities like Denton and Richmond.
  • Some addresses are serviced by more than one of the nine large ISPs according to FCC data. For 13.0 percent of addresses, none of the ISPs’ tools indicate service is available.
  • FCC data shows that approximately half of these addresses are also served by one or more local or hyper-local ISPs (the US has more than 2,000 ISPs). We were not able to check availability for local ISPs, and therefore conservatively assumed that residents of these addresses could receive broadband.
  • In total, we estimate that 42 million Americans do not have the ability to purchase broadband internet. This is an additional 6.5 percent of Americans beyond FCC estimates.

State-Level Data: FCC Reporting Flaw Hits Rural Communities Harder

Ending the digital divide requires affordable broadband options for rural communities and therefore it is useful to look at false positives at the state level.

Unfortunately, as with many of the issues surrounding the digital divide, FCC overreporting disproportionately impacts rural communities. As an example, in South Carolina, where 50 percent of residents live in an urban area, unserved addresses are 30 percent higher than FCC estimates. Compare that to Arizona, where 90 percent of residents live in an urban area and unserved addresses are 11 percent higher.

Chart: FCC and BroadbandNow Estimates of Broadband Availability, by State

Table: FCC and BroadbandNow Estimates of Unserved Americans, by State

State Population (1) Unserved: FCC 2019 Estimate (2) Unserved: BroadbandNow 2020 Estimate (3)
United States 325.71 21.31 42.82
Alabama 4.88 0.68 1.36
Alaska 0.74 0.15 0.29
Arizona 7.02 0.92 1.84
Arkansas 3.00 0.68 1.37
California 39.54 1.17 2.35
Colorado 5.61 0.40 0.79
Connecticut 3.59 0.03 0.06
DC 0.69 0.01 0.03
Delaware 0.96 0.02 0.05
Florida 20.98 0.90 1.60
Georgia 10.43 0.79 1.58
Hawaii 1.43 0.06 0.11
Idaho 1.72 0.25 0.51
Illinois 12.80 0.68 1.37
Indiana 6.67 0.67 1.35
Iowa 3.15 0.29 0.59
Kansas 2.91 0.26 0.52
Kentucky 4.45 0.40 0.81
Louisiana 4.68 0.58 1.17
Maine 1.34 0.09 0.18
Maryland 6.05 0.15 0.29
Massachusetts 6.86 0.14 0.28
Michigan 9.96 0.79 1.59
Minnesota 5.58 0.29 0.58
Mississippi 2.98 0.61 1.23
Missouri 6.11 0.69 1.39
Montana 1.05 0.14 0.29
Nebraska 1.92 0.25 0.49
Nevada 3.00 0.22 0.44
New Hampshire 1.34 0.07 0.14
New Jersey 9.01 0.09 0.17
New Mexico 2.09 0.35 0.70
New York 19.85 0.32 0.64
North Carolina 10.27 0.54 1.08
North Dakota 0.76 0.05 0.10
Ohio 11.66 0.62 1.25
Oklahoma 3.93 0.83 1.66
Oregon 4.14 0.32 0.64
Pennsylvania 12.81 0.61 1.22
Rhode Island 1.06 0.02 0.04
South Carolina 5.02 0.51 1.02
South Dakota 0.87 0.10 0.19
Tennessee 6.72 0.59 1.18
Texas 28.30 2.07 4.17
Utah 3.10 0.18 0.36
Vermont 0.62 0.07 0.13
Virginia 8.48 0.70 1.41
Washington 7.41 0.20 0.40
West Virginia 1.82 0.28 0.56
Wisconsin 5.80 0.50 1.01
Wyoming 0.58 0.11 0.22

(1) Population (millions) from FCC 2019 Broadband Deployment Report

(2) Population (millions) unserved by "terrestrial" broadband internet from FCC 2019 Broadband Deployment Report.

(3) Population (millions) unserved by "terrestrial" broadband internet according to BroadbandNow Research 2020 Study.

* for these states, data was not statistically significant

Underreporting Impacts both Homes and Apartments

Our study found 22 percent of provider/address combinations for houses and 19 percent of provider/address combinations for apartments did not have service available. A large reason for the discrepancy is that apartments happen to over-index in urban rather than rural parts of the country. Urban areas, due to dense populations, tend to have census blocks that are narrow in square miles, whereas rural areas, with less population density have wider and less concentrated blocks. This increases the probability of those blocks having overstated coverage, because while one house could reach a wired line, the next house (which could be acres away) might not. Despite this, under the current system, it will still be counted. In addition, urban areas have historically had the most buildout of wired lines and longer established coverage.

Curious about internet access in the U.S.?

  • See how all 50 states rank for internet access, pricing, and speeds. (Hint: New Jersey is the best, Alaska is the worst.)
  • Check out in depth statistics for every city in the county, including internet access in Dallas, Los Angeles, and Detroit.
  • You can search for internet statistics in your city here.

Where Do We Go From Here?

The key question for policymakers is how to get better data. The FCC announced it is changing its data collection from Form 477 to geospatial broadband coverage maps and citizen crowdsourcing.

BroadbandNow Research believes that provider reporting on address-level availability is the best and most transparent way to understand and quantify the digital divide. We also believe that FCC reporting should be more timely (FCC Form 477 data is typically made public 12-18 months after ISPs self-report).

Address-level availability would have additional benefits such as increasing competition, which we have shown to reduce prices for consumers.


Armand-Frappier Santé Biotechnologie Research Centre

The INRS Armand-Frappier Santé Biotechnologie Research Centre contributes to research, training, and technology transfer in the fields of disease detection and prevention with a view to promoting human, animal, and environmental health.

Graduate students and postdoctoral fellows

Grants, contracts and research chairs

Research projects on COVID-19

State-of-the-art research facilities

Like Dr. Armand Frappier, Quebec vaccination pioneer who founded the Institut de micrologie et d’hygiène de Montréal in 1938, which is 1975 became the Institut Armand-Frappier, the Centre continues a strong tradition of research emphasizing prevention and innovative solutions for public health issues like cancer, antibiotic resistance, and Alzheimer’s disease.

Located in Laval, it is the only Canadian university research institution in the Institut Pasteur International Network. It is a hub for infectiology research in Quebec and is also recognized for its world-leading expertise in doping control.

Graduate students enjoy the benefits of quality supervision, cutting-edge equipment and laboratories, and a dynamic campus environment. The centre is involved in innovative research often conducted in partnership with industry and leading Canadian and international research networks.

Faculty pool their interdisciplinary expertise to better understand areas such as chronic viral infections, the connection between environmental pollutants and disease, and the potential for using microorganisms to develop biotechnology.

Through the Apprentis chercheurs (Researchers Apprentices) program and its partnership with Musée Armand-Frappier, the centre also offers high school students and the general public a fascinating glimpse into the world of health research.


Watch the video: Biotechnology to fight air pollution - futuris (August 2022).