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The denomination Golgi complex or apparatus It is a tribute to the Italian cytologist Camilo Golgi, who in 1898 discovered this cytoplasmic structure.
By ascertaining that certain regions with cellular cytoplasm were stained with silver osmium salts, Golgi imagined that there must be some kind of structure, later confirmed by electron microscopy.
The Golgi apparatus is present in virtually all eukaryotic cells, and consists of flat membranous pouches, stacked like plates. Each of these stacks is named after dithiosome. In animal cells, dithiosomes are usually assembled in a single location near the nucleus. In plant cells, there are usually several dithiosomes scattered throughout the cytoplasm.
Golgi Appliance Functions
Golgi's apparatus acts as cell storage, processing, packaging and shipping center. Many of the substances that pass through the Golgi apparatus will be eliminated from the cell, acting in different parts of the body. This is the case, for example, with digestive enzymes produced and eliminated by the cells of various organs (stomach, intestine, pancreas, etc.). Other substances, such as mucus which lubricates the inner surfaces of our body, are also processed and eliminated by the Golgi apparatus. Thus, the main role of this cytoplasmic structure is the elimination of substances that act outside the cell, a process generically called cell secretion.
Digestive Enzyme Secretion
At pancreas digestive enzymes, for example, they are produced in the RER and carried to the Golgi apparatus pouches, where they are packaged in small pouches that detach from the dithiosomes and accumulate on one of the pancreatic cell poles. When the signal arrives that there is food to be digested, the enzyme-filled pouches move to the plasma membrane, fuse with it, and eliminate their contents to the outside.
The production of digestive enzymes by the pancreas is just one of many examples of the role of the Golgi apparatus in cell secretion processes. Virtually every cell in the body synthesizes and secretes a wide variety of proteins that act outside them.