Raphide toxicity in Pothos plant

Recently I found out that the common houseplant Pothos (Epipremnum aureum) is toxic to cats and dogs due to the presence of "insoluble raphides." I have a lot of these plants around my house and my cat drinks water from the vase that they are in (I put drinking water into the vase that he always drinks from). He doesn't chew the Pothos leaves, he only drinks the water, is it still dangerous? I tried several times to give him water in an ordinary bowl, but he prefers the water that's associated with the Pothos plant, so I thought that maybe the roots of the plant excrete something nutritious (but I guess that's not the case, apparently… ). Is it harmful for an animal (cat) to drink water that has a Pothos plant immersed in it? Also, my other cat does chew on the Pothos leaves (he goes crazy for them). Is it possible to have immunity and not be affected by the toxic chemicals? I read that chewing is supposed to provoke stomach irritation, but I would think that if the cat that chews the leaves suffered from irritation he wouldn't keep getting excited about chewing the leaves…
So what is going on? Many thanks!

Perhaps someone else can answer this with more certainty, but I'd guess that because raphides are essentially sharp crystals that cause irritation-related symptoms, rather than toxic chemicals in the way one might usually think of them, that drinking the water wouldn't pose a problem (actually, I suppose the word "insoluble" might be a clue here). Raphides are defence against herbivory, and chewing raphide-containing leaves is what you want not to do (or not let your pets do).

Veterinary Toxicology p. 889 has more info.


Indoor plants can add beauty, peace and serenity to your home. However not all plants are as harmless as they seem. While most species of the plant kingdom are safe, some of them are poisonous and can cause severe reactions in both humans and animals. Keeping poisonous plants indoors is even more dangerous if you have young children and dogs as they could eat them without realizing. These ten plants are best kept outside your home if you want to keep your home toxin-free.

Toxic plants (excluding fungi)

Dieffenbachia (Leopard lily, Dumbcane).

A member of the Araceae family, Dieffenbachia is widely used as a house-plant in many cultures, and has resulted in many inquiries to poisons centres as a result of accidental childhood exposures. All parts of Dieffenbachia contain irritant toxins including calcium oxalate needles (raphides) and oxalic acid and possibly saponins, glycosides, alkaloids, proteolytic enzymes, protein-like substances and cyanogenic glycosides. Their presence and involvement in toxicity is the subject of much confusion since the mechanisms are still not fully understood, despite much study. The calcium oxalate needles (raphides) are present in ejector cells and pressure causes these cells to open and the contents to be released. The needles may penetrate mast cells leading to histamine release. It may be that oxalic acid is also present in the ejector cells and is transferred with and ejected by the needles [15] . There is the suggestion that penetration by the proteolytic enzymes enhances the damage caused by the calcium oxalate crystals [16] .

Following ingestion the following clinical effects have been recorded including a burning sensation in the mouth, vomiting, severe diarrhoea, salivation, difficulty in swallowing and, sometimes, loss of speech and impairment of airway patency [15] . Physical effects may be complicated by systemic toxic effects causing bradycardia, muscle twitching and cramps and respiratory failure [17] . Deaths from ingestion of Dieffenbachia have been reported [18] . Death of an 11-month-old child was attributed to effects secondary to erosions caused by ingestion of the leaves of Philodendron, another member of the Araceae family [19] . In a recent retrospective review by the Pittsburgh Poisons Centre [20] , 188 cases of ingestion or suspected ingestion of Philodendron or Dieffenbachia were identified with 72% of these cases concerning children aged 4–12 months. In all these cases the integrity of the leaves was reported as being broken. Surprisingly, only three cases concerning exposure to Dieffenbachia and one to Philodendron were considered to have resulted in clinical effects: in these four cases symptoms occurred within five minutes and were of short duration with no serious oral complications or delayed symptoms being noted. This data suggested that even plants thought to present a real toxicological hazard are in fact of low risk. However, the IPCS survey shows that Dieffenbachia caused the most number of symptomatic cases worldwide [12] . Therefore, the clinical effects of the Aracaea family, although relatively rarely documented in the literature, can be so severe that the whole family should be regarded as hazardous.

Araceae: Characters, Distribution and Types

Plants rhizomatous or tuberous large herb root-climbers in damp forests leaves large, lamina incised or perforated, leaf-base sheathing spadix subtented by spathe spathe of bright colour flowers di- or trimerous, unisexual (rarely bisexual), perianth absent or 6 tepals, stamens generally forming synandrium, fruit berry.

A. Vegetative characters:

Usually perennial herb, highly variable as rhizomatous or tuberous herbs Arum climber (Pothos) or tree-like (Philodendron), aquatic (Pistia), epiphytic (Anthurium), marshy (Acorus).

Adventitious, fibrous, usually of two-aerial or epiphytic in climbing plants, (Pothos, Monstera), absorbing and clasping. In the aerial roots, the velamen are also present.

Underground or subterranean, in the form of tubers (Arum), corms (Colocasia) rhizome (Acorus), aerial (Pothos) with often have a pungent taste, aerial showing monopodial or sympodial branching, accessory buds often develop in leaf-axil.

Generally large, measuring 3 metre (Amorphophallus companulatus) radical or cauline, shape and size variable, alternate, simple or compound, petiolate or sessile (Pistia), usually parallel-veined (Acorus) but rarely reticulate (Arisaema), cordate, sagittute or hastate, entire or lobed.

B. Floral characters:

Spadix, subtended by a bract or spathe, it may be more than 1 m long Amorphophallus rivieria, coloured, the upper portion of spadix is usually naked and lower portion bears flower, usually some sterile flowers are present close to male and female flowers i.e. the flowers of both sexes are in distinct zones separated by zone of sterile hair.

Small, sessile, actinomorphic, di- or trimerous, unisexual rarely bisexual (Acorus, Pothos, Mostera), hypogynous or epigynous, often bad-smelling.

Absent (Calla, Colocasia) in unisexual flowers and present in bisexual flowers, 1 (Acorus) or 4 (Anthurium) to 6 (Acorus), perianth lobes small, scale-like, free or rarely connate.

Stamens many or reduced to 4-10, even 1 (Arisaema) in two or one whorl situated opposite to perianth lobes free or united into a synandrium (Colocasia, Alocasia) dithecous, introrse, female flowers bear staminodes.

Carpels varied in number, but often reduced to single carpel, ovary superior, 1 to 3-celled, ovules one or more in each cell placentation may be axile (Pothos) or parietal (Arum) or basal (Typhonium) style short, stigma one or more.

A berry, the cluster densely grouped on the fruiting spadix, looking as a multiple-fruit.

Albuminous, embedded in mucilaginous pulp or exalbuminous.

Entomophillous due to coloured – spathe, rarely self-pollinated (species of Arisaema).

Distribution of Araceae:

It is commonly called Arum family, contain 115 genera and 2000 species. About 25 genera and over 140 species have been reported from India. The members tend to be aquatic but some are epiphytic.

Economic Importance of Araceae:

The plants cultivated for vegetables are Colocasia esculenta (Arvi, Kachalu or Colocasia) Alocasia indica (Mankand), Amorphophallus campanulatus (Zimikand or elephant foot).

Leaves of Lasia spinosa are eaten as food.

The large fruits of Mostera are eaten in many tropical regions. From the tubers of Colocasia esculenta, the starchy baby foods and alcohol are also prepared.

The rhizomes of Acorus calamus are used in diarrhoea and dyspepsia. The stem juice of Alocasia macrorrhiza is used to relieve pain in scorpion bite. The corns of Amorphophallus campanulatus are used in treating piles and dysentry.

Arisaema spp. are poisonous.

The plants of this family are commonly grown in gardens and green houses for their variegated and handsome leaves. The plants are Pothos aureus (Money plant), Monstera deliciosa, Alocasia indica var. metallica, Caladium picturatum, C. bicolor, Colocasia esculenta, Scindapsus officinalis, Anthurium and Pistia spp. in aquaria.

Affinities of Araceae:

Bentham and Hooker placed the Araceae in their fifth series Nudiflorae for the perianth being absent in many genera of the family. Engler treated the family along with the Lemnaceae, on account of the universal presence of spathe. Rendle included the family in order spadiciflorae on the basis of spadix inflorescence and unisexual flowers. In Hutchinson’s arrangement, the family appeared under order Arales.

The Araceae is closely related to the Palmaceae on such grounds as small flowers arranged in a spadix and subtended by a spathe as well as the relative size of the embryo and endosperm. It is also akin to the Lemnaceae which is a replica of the aroids, though an extremely reduced one.

The origin of the Araceae has been a subject of much dispute. Lotsy suggested that the family, together with the Arecaceae (Palmae) and Pandonaceae, arose from the Piperales. Engler felt that the family was a derivative of the Palmaceae via the Cyclanthaceae.

Wettstein regarded the family to the more advanced than the Orchidaceae and to be originating from the Helobiae-Liliiflorae stocks. Hutchinson expressed the idea that the family developed directly from the Liliaceae through the tribe Aspidistreae.

Common plants of the family:

1. Amorphophallus campanulatus (Teligo patato) is a terrestrial herb with roundish, watery thick corms.

2. Arisaema tortuosum (Snake plant) seen in Darjeeling and Shillong, is characterised by a greenish-purple spathe which expands over the spadix like the hood of a snake.

3. Caladium bicolor – Leaves variegated, multicoloured, ornamental garden plant.

4. Pistia stratiotes L. (Water Cabbage) is a floating stoloniferous herb bearing rosettes of sessile obcordate cuneate leaves.

5. Pothos aureus L, (Money plant), a climbing herb without latex. The leaves may be variegated, cultivated.

6. Acorus calamus L. (Sweet flag) is an erect aromatic marshy herb.

7. Monstera deliciosa (“Amarphal”) an ornamental herb or shrub with leaves perforated.

Division of the family and chief genera:

The Araceae is divided into eight sub-families:

Latex sacs straight, flowers with or without perianth. Stamens free or in synandria.

Sub-family II. Calloideae:

Leaves fever sagittate, Latex sacs present, Flowers bisexual, naked.

Sub-family III. Colocasioideae:

Leaves always net-veinned. Latex sacs branched, Flowers unisexual, naked, Stamens in synandria.

Sub-family IV. Lasioideae:

Leaves sagittate, Latex sacs present. Flowers bisexual or unisexual.

Sub-family V. Monsteroideae:

Latex sacs absent, but spicular cells present. Flowers bisexual, naked.

Sub-family VI. Philodendroideae:

Leaves always parallel-veined. Flowers bisexual or unisexual.

Philodendron, Richardia etc.

Sub-family VII. Pistioideae:

Aquatic herbs. Leaves parallel-veined. Flowers extremely reduced.

Sub-family VIII. Pothoideae:

Latex sacs and spicular cells absent, flowers bisexual.

Important Type of Araceae:

Colocasia esculenta (Fig. 114.1):

Herb, large, coarse and cultivated.

Corms, from main corm arise lateral branches.

Large, ovate-sagittate, spathe, yellow with green base, thick in texture.

Spadix – enveloped in white and yellow spathe.

Unisexual and naked actinomorphic.

Androecium of 6 stamens united into a six-angled synandrium.

Gynoecium of tricarpellary, syncarpous, superior, unilocular, parietal placentation.

Genetically Modified Pothos Ivy Houseplant Detoxifies Air Of Pollutants

No matter where or when you are in the world, there are carcinogenic pollutants in the air. The natural degradation of plant material and other chemical reactions across the planet produce these compounds. This is also true for humans and the things we make and the homes we live in. The slow breakdown of laminate flooring, upholstery, and pretty much everything that makes up and is put in a home slowly puts out such compounds over time. Especially in regards to volatile organic carcinogens (VOCs) that are also a byproduct of cooking foods and even in the process of showering, such as formaldehyde and benzene.

Proliferation of Volatile Compounds

For the most part, the concentrations of these are at such a low level that they aren’t a concern, but there are certain situations that can cause a buildup of them. Thus, to reduce even minor potential risks of these to those that would be most vulnerable like children and the elderly, an easy method to collect and break down these compounds from air within a contained room would be useful. All of the current physical methods, including adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation have their downsides in complexity of application, the production of other problem components, or just require a large amount of energy in an unrealistic way.

Biological mechanisms have long been touted as a better and more passive option of cleaning household air through phytoremediation. However, even if plants can take up and break down VOCs, as one example, they do so at such a slow rate that the process isn’t feasible. Not unless one plans to have quite a lot of plants shoved into far too small of a room. The rates also vary by such a degree during controlled testing that there was no way to have a reliable set of plants to remove a known quantity of such compounds. There was just too much conflicting data from independent studies. So, regular, boring plants are out. But that isn’t the end of the discussion.

Plants themselves remain a hot commodity for air purification purposes just due to the excess energy they produce and have available for such tasks. Add to that the high amount of surface area they cover with their leaves and that they are self-sustaining and that makes them a far better product for this purpose than what microorganisms are capable of on the same scale. But how to boost the uptake and breakdown of such compounds if the plants aren’t capable of doing so naturally?

Advanced Detoxification

Researchers at the University of Washington decided to try an unorthodox, but rapidly becoming more commonplace, approach. There is a gene in mammals called cytochrome P450 2E1 or just CYP2e1 for short. It controls protein production for a protein that can oxidize a large number of VOCs and breaks them down so they do not damage the cell or the overall body. This gene has already been tested in trees through transgenic transfer and been shown to improve their VOC degradation. Now, they wanted to do the same thing for common houseplants and plants that would be more commonly found in urban areas and regions with higher VOC concentrations.

The houseplant they selected for the experiment was pothos ivy, due to its strong growth, ability to live in low light conditions, and because a genetic transformation method had already been conducted and published in the past for the species, saving a significant amount of time and effort on their part. Furthermore, since pothos ivy doesn’t flower in any capacity due to the ancestral loss of a necessary gene, there are no biosafety concerns of the transgene being spread through pollen production, however remote that risk would otherwise be. An enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) was added to the transgene cassette as a selectable marker to show that the insertion had been successfully done.

The result was a highly active detoxification plant cultivar they named pothos ivy VD3. They tested it against two of the most common VOCs and the effect was incredibly strong when compared to wild type versions. Benzene breakdown increased 4.7-fold and chloroform was even more surprising as the wild type plants had no prior capability to break it down. VD3, meanwhile, reduced a concentration of 800 milligrams per cubic meter to 0 in the span of 6 days, an incredibly rapid degradation as well.

The Future Super Plants

While other VOCs were not checked in this particular experiment, it seems likely due to the functions of CYP2e1 in mammals that it would be able to break down any number of other compounds if given the opportunity and the researchers plan to make sure of that. They also hope to include a stronger GFP system in the plants, as the one they added was too weak to be seen with the visible eye under the right light and needed a microscope instead. They want it to be a visual marker under certain light to check for ongoing activity of the gene and also for biosafety reasons.

Lastly, they plan to try even more combinations of degradation genes beyond just this one. The gene faldh from a particular Bacillus bacterium has been shown to improve plant uptake of formaldehyde by several fold and that’s just by adding a single other option. Overall, the scientists have very clearly shown a simple, safe, and beneficial alternative to complicated and sometimes dangerous methods of cleaning contaminants and pollutants from the air, with the hopes that it will not only save lives and improve the health of people around the world, but that it might even be used to clean up contaminated regions of the planet at the same time.

Materials and methods

Insects and plants

Newly hatched larvae of a line of the Eri silkmoth, Samia ricini, (Saturniidae), maintained at our institute as experimental insects were used for bioassays of the defensive effects of raphides and its synergism with bromelain. The Eri silkmoth larvae have been successfully used in bioassays to evaluate plant defense levels and to detect novel plant defense factors against herbivorous insects, such as the effects of leaf-rolling [33], defensive effects of cysteine proteases [15], detection of sugar-mimic alkaloids [34] and novel chitin-binding defense protein MLX56 [35] from mulberry latex, and detection of the novel defense protein BPLP from phloem exudate of cucurbit plants [36]. The castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), maintained at our institute as a natural host plant of the Eri silkworm, was used in the bioassays. Young plant individuals that were sown 2 to 3 months prior to the bioassays were used in bioassays.

Collection and purification of raphides from kiwifruits and observation of the purified raphide using an electron microscope

For the bioassays, it was necessary to collect natural raphides and purify them. We chose kiwifruits as a source of raphides because kiwifruits are commercially available, and softer and less fibrous than other commercially available sources of raphides such as taro tubers and pineapple fruits. Commercially obtained kiwifruits (cultivar Hayward) were cut transversely and the inner pericarp area adjacent to the seeds (referred to as the locular region), where idioblasts specialized in containing raphides concentrate [5], was collected. One gram of locular tissue was placed in each microtube (1.5 ml), 200 μl of 4 M CaCl2 solution was added, and then the tissue was gently homogenized using a pellet mixer (1.5 ml Treff Lab, Switzerland). The homogenate was centrifuged (15,000 g, 10 min) and the supernatant was discarded. Then the pellet was resuspended in 1 ml of heavy liquid (6.35 M CsCl, 0.4 M CaCl2, 1.8 g/cm3). The suspension was then centrifuged (15,000 g, 10 min). Raphides, which were heavier than the heavy liquid (>2 g/cm3), sedimented and formed a pellet, while fruit pulp, which was lighter than the heavy liquid (ca. 1.4 g/cm 3 ) but which still contains raphides, formed floating matter. The floating matter was then mixed with the supernatant in the microtube using the pellet mixer, taking special care not to disturb the sedimented pellet of raphides. Then it was centrifuged again (15,000 g, 10 min). Additional raphides that were separated from the pulp increased the amount of the pellet consisting of raphides. This cycle was repeated 4 times. Then, the supernatant and floating matter consisting of pulp were discarded and the pellet of raphides was collected and washed with 0.04 M CaCl2 solution. After drying and measuring the mass of collected raphides, raphides were finally kept as a suspension in 0.04 M CaCl2 solution at a concentration of 37.5 μg/μl. By this method, 8.3 mg of raphides was purified from 100 g of the locular region of kiwifruit. In order to check whether the purified raphides retained an intact needle-like shape, the purified raphides were observed using an electron microscope as follows. The purified raphides were suspended in 0.0004 M CaCl2 solution at a concentration of 37.5 μg/μl, and this suspension were dropped on adhesive tape attached on the metal block platform. After drying in air, the raphides were coated with gold, and were observed using a model JSM-6301F scanning electron microscope (JEOL, Tokyo, Japan). The SEM images of the purified raphides indicated that the purified raphides retained an intact sharp needle-like shape with a length around 0.1 mm or 100 μm (but without grooves and barb-like shapes observed in raphides of Araceae plants [12]) (Figure 1).

Preparation of raphide-free kiwifruit extract

One gram of locular tissue of commercially obtained kiwifruit (Hayward) was placed in a microtube (1.5 ml) and was homogenized using a pellet mixer (1.5 ml Treff Lab, Switzerland). Then, the homogenate was centrifuged (15,000 g, 10 min) and the supernatant was collected. The supernatant was centrifuged again. After the third centrifugation, the supernatant was collected as raphide-free kiwifruit extract.


Leaf pieces of the castor oil plant (3 cm×3 cm, ca. 0.1 g) used for a single series of bioassay (∼6 pieces) were cut from a single young palmate leaf that had just reached its mature size (1 piece from each lobe). These leaf pieces were painted with 100 ml of solutions containing 4 mM CaCl2, (to prevent raphides from melting), 1% glycerol (used as an agent to spread or adhere the raphides), 0 mg, 0.2 mg (low dose), 2 mg or 4 mg of bromelain (B-4882, lyophilized powder purified from pineapple stem, 3.6 unit/mg (this protease unit was defined by Sigma using Na-Z-L-lysine p-nitrophenyl ester as a substrate, and is different from the unit that was defined by us using casein as a substrate and are used elsewhere in the present study) Sigma), 0% or 40% of raphide-free kiwifruit extract, 0 μg, 46.9 μg (low dose), 375 μg or 750 μg of raphides purified from kiwifruit, and 0 μg or 375 μg of amorphous calcium oxalate crystals (Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd., Osaka, Japan). The solutions were painted on the underside of the leaf piece and smeared evenly on the surface using yellow pipette tips. After the leaf surface dried, neonate Eri silkmoth larvae were placed on the leaf surface and allowed to the leaf pieces for 1 day, and then the larval mass and mortality were measured.

Protease assays and definition of unit

Kiwifruits (cultivar Hayward) that were harvested in late fall were cut, placed in a microtube (1.5 ml), and crushed (homogenized) using a pellet mixer (1.5 ml Treff Lab, Switzerland) on the day of harvest. The homogenate was centrifuged (15,000 g, 10 min) and the supernatant was collected for protease assays. One hundred μl of sodium phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.0) containing supernatants or enzymes were mixed with 1 ml of reaction solution containing 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.0), 5 mM cysteine, 1 mM EDTA, and 1% casein as a substrate. Reactions were performed at 25°C for 30 min, then 1 ml of 20% trichloroacetate was added to terminate the reactions. After centrifugation (10,000 g, 10 min), supernatants were collected, then the absorptions at 280 nm (A280, 1 cm light path) were analyzed. One unit was defined as the enzyme activity that made a 0.001 increase in A280 per minute at the reaction condition described above.

Is Xanadu poisonous?

Philodendron. No other group of plants is as widely used indoors as philodendrons, but they are poisonous to humans and pets. Eating them can cause burning and swelling of lips, tongue, and throat vomiting and diarrhea. Like ivy, philodendrons have a trailing habit, so keep far from the floor.

is ZZ plant cancerous? ZZ plants's are a safe plant despite being part of the Philodendron family which contains calcium oxalate crystals in the plant that can irritate various sensitive skin parts. The belief that it is an extremely poisonous plant is just not true. And no, it doesn't cause cancer.

Just so, is Welcome plant poisonous?

It's toxic but not cancerous. Don't eat it, keep it away from nibbling pets and overly curious children, and always wash your hands after handling it to avoid skin irritation.

Are snake plants toxic to humans?

While it shows low or no toxicity in humans, snake plants are considered toxic houseplants for cats and dogs, according to the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA). The plant contains saponins as natural insecticides and fungicides.

Is a pothos plant poisonous?

Family : Araceae Plant Description : Evergreen vines with stems green and striped with white or yellow leaves heart-shaped, variegated flowers in a spadix surrounded by a spathe. Origin : Asia. Where Found : Houseplant or interiorscape. Mode : Ingestion, dermatitis. Poisonous Part : All parts. Symptoms : Burning and swelling of lips, mouth, tongue, and throat, also diarrhea. Skin irritation from frequent contact. Toxic Principle : Calcium oxalate crystals. Severity : TOXIC ONLY IF LARGE QUANTITIES EATEN. CAUSES SEVERE PAIN IN THE MOUTH IF EATEN! SKIN IRRITATION MINOR, OR LASTING ONLY FOR A FEW MINUTES. "Poisonous Plants of North Carolina," Dr. Alice B. Russell, Department of Horticultural Science Dr. James W. Hardin, botany Dr. Larry Grand, Plant Pathology and Dr. Angela Fraser, Family and Consumer Sciences North Carolina State University . All Pictures Copyright @1997Alice B. Russell, James W. Hardin, Larry Grand. Computer programming, Miguel A. Buendia graphics, Brad Capel.


Phyllosiphon Kühn ( Fig. 6H )

Phyllosiphon is endophytic on various members of the higher plant Family Araceae . It consists of coenocytic tubular branches (multinucleate and noncellular), profusely dichotomously or irregularly divided and interwoven with one another. Branches contain numerous discoid or elliptical chloroplasts except at apices pyrenoids are absent. Reproduction is by many small ellipsoidal aplanospores.

It forms green patches within leaves and stems and often induces discoloration of the area of host tissue infected. Known from northern and eastern parts of the United States growing within the tissues of Arisaema triphyllum, it is commonly known as Jack-in-the-Pulpit ( Smith, 1933 , 1950 ). For further information, see Chapman and Waters (1992) .

Druse (botany)

A druse is a group of crystals of calcium oxalate, [1] silicates, or carbonates present in plants, and are thought to be a defense against herbivory due to their toxicity. Calcium oxalate (Ca(COO)2, CaOx) crystals are found in algae, angiosperms and gymnosperms in a total of more than 215 families. These plants accumulate oxalate in the range of 3–80% (w/w) of their dry weight [2] [3] through a biomineralization process in a variety of shapes. [4] Araceae have numerous druses, multi-crystal druses and needle-shaped raphide crystals of CaOx present in the tissue. [5] Druses are also found in leaves and bud scales of Prunus, Rosa, [6] Allium, Vitis, Morus and Phaseolus. [7] [8]

A number of biochemical pathways for calcium oxalate biomineralization in plants have been proposed. Among these are the cleavage of isocitrate, the hydrolysis of oxaloacetate, glycolate/glyoxylate oxidation, and/or oxidative cleavage of L-ascorbic acid. [9] The cleavage of ascorbic acid appears to be the most studied pathway. [10] [11] [12] [13] The specific mechanism controlling this process is unclear but it has been suggested that a number of factors influence crystal shape and growth, such as proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids or macromolecular membrane structures. [14] [15] [16] Druses may also have some purpose in calcium regulation.

Watch the video: How To Care for Your Pothos. Apartment Therapy (January 2022).