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10.5: Chapter Resources - Biology

10.5: Chapter Resources - Biology


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Summary

Air pollution can be thought of as gaseous and particulate contaminants that are present in the earth’s atmosphere. Rather, human activities can explain most of that warming.

The primary human activity affecting the amount and rate of climate change is greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere will continue to increase unless the billions of tons of our annual emissions decrease substantially. Increased concentrations are expected to increase Earth’s average temperature, influence the patterns and amounts of precipitation, reduce ice and snow cover, as well as permafrost, raise sea level and increase the acidity of the oceans. These changes will impact our food supply, water resources, infrastructure, ecosystems, and even our own health. Acid rain is a term referring to a mixture of wet and dry deposition from the atmosphere containing higher than normal amounts of nitric and sulfuric acids. The precursors of acid rain formation result from both natural sources, such as volcanoes and decaying vegetation, and man-made sources, primarily emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) resulting from fossil fuel combustion. Acid rain causes acidification of lakes and streams, contributes to the damage of trees and many sensitive forest soils. In addition, acid rain accelerates the decay of building materials and paints, contributes to the corrosion of metals and damages human health. The ozone depletion process begins when CFCs and other ozone-depleting substances (ODS) are emitted into the atmosphere. Reductions in stratospheric ozone levels lead to higher levels of UVB reaching the Earth’s surface. The sun’s output of UVB does not change; rather, less ozone means less protection, and hence more UVB reaches the Earth. Ozone layer depletion increases the amount of UVB tat lead to negative health and environmental effects.

Review Questions

  1. Ground-level ozone…
    1. Protects us from radiation
    2. Is a primary pollutant
    3. Is a secondary pollutant
    4. Reduces visibility but is mostly harmless to human health
    5. Is emitted from motor vehicles
  2. Secondary pollutants are pollutants…
    1. Emitted from non-point sources
    2. That are created from the reaction of primary pollutants and other chemicals
    3. That are less hazardous than primary pollutants
    4. That have reduced ability to stay aloft in the atmosphere
    5. Emitted by Class 2 polluters
  3. Depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer occurs when molecules of ozone are destroyed by chemicals such as…
    1. CFC
    2. DDT
    3. O3
    4. PCB
    5. CH4
  4. What is the function of the stratospheric ozone layer?
    1. Provides the biosphere with a source of elemental oxygen
    2. Protects against ultraviolet light
    3. Shields the Earth from high-energy cosmic rays
    4. Protects organisms from infrared radiation
    5. Creates UVB radiation for vitamin D synthesis
  5. Anthropogenic causes of acid rain are primarily due to which one of the following?
    1. Destruction of the ozone layer
    2. Emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from the combustion of fossil fuels
    3. Emissions of carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels
    4. Industrial emissions of acids
    5. Acids formed in the contrails of airplanes
  6. The scientific consensus regarding global climate change is that these changes are…
    1. Caused by natural, Earth-based phenomena such as volcanoes
    2. Poorly understood and no scientific conclusions can be made at this time
    3. Primarily caused by human activities
    4. Caused by eccentricity in Earth’s orbit and by changes in solar intensity
    5. No greater or different than changes seen in the medieval times
  7. Greenhouse gases are known to raise air temperatures by…
    1. absorbing infrared radiation
    2. creating heat through chemical reactions with atmospheric pollutants
    3. absorbing incoming visible light from the sun
    4. trapping high energy molecules and atomic particles
    5. releasing heat stored in high-altitude catalytic cycles
  8. Changes in reflectivity of visible light affect how much energy enters Earth’s system. What term is used by scientists to describe the reflectivity of a surface?
    1. Contrastivity
    2. Libido
    3. Mirror-effect
    4. Alluvium
    5. Albedo
  9. What is the primary cause of ocean acidification?
    1. Atmospheric CO2 dissolving in ocean water
    2. Increases in acid rain
    3. Increased erosion of acid-containing rocks
    4. Water draining into the ocean has a higher pH from industrial pollutants
    5. All of the above
  10. Which one of the following is not a predicted consequence of global climate change?
    1. Spread of diseases carried by insects, such as malaria
    2. Rise in sea levels
    3. Increases in the global average air and ocean temperatures
    4. Intensity of precipitation events will likely increase on average.
    5. All of the above

See Appendix for answers


Chapter Navigation:

To help students and teachers take advantage of the ever-growing resources available on the world wide web, we've established a directory of resources for each chapter of the Dragonfly Book that can be accessed on-line. There's a web page for each chapter (which you can access from the Chapter Navigation tool), and we've provided links to at least 4 categories of resource (from our publisher, Prentice Hall) for each chapter:

Hot Links
Internet links to help students master and explore the chapter's subject matter .

Take it to the Net
An internet-based research and study project specially designed to reinforce important concepts from the chapter.

Chapter Self-Test
An on-line interactive quiz to test your understanding of the chapter

Teaching Links
On-line resources useful to instructors in covering the chapter material.

Two years ago, when Joe Levine and I began work on a new Biology textbook, we envisioned an easily accessible web support site that would open the scientific world of the Internet to students and teachers alike. This website is our first effort to do exactly that.

What we've done is to take a series of web resources put together by our publisher (Prentice Hall) and put them at your fingertips. In addition to our publisher's work, Joe and I have placed a great deal of our own material on the site, paying special attention to the "Issues" and "Technology and Society" features in our textbook.

So, take a look around. Visit one or two of the chapters, explore the links and web-based activities, and get a feel for what we've done to supplement the "Dragonfly Book."

We hope you'll enjoy and make use of what we've done with the site, and we also hope you'll let us know if there is anything you'd like to see on the website in the future.

Best Wishes,

Kenneth R. Miller
Brown University


10.5: Chapter Resources - Biology

(1) p. 463-465 , How a Plant Depends on Water
If you don't remember the terms photosynthesis, turgor pressure, hydrolysis, or transport, review them now by looking in the index in your textbook to see on what page they are mentioned.
Note what module they are in if you need to review videos from that module.

Stimulus : something causing a response.

Nastic Movement vs. Tropism



Examples of nastic movement (not a growth response like a tropism can be)
Nastic movement because it does not matter from which direction the bug comes.
This is a preprogrammed response to happen when the hairs are touched.


More nastic movement
Nastic movement because it does not matter from which direction the leaves are touched.
This is a preprogrammed response to happen when touched.


Nastic movement of a Moon Flower, also called an Evening Primrose
It opens near dusk and it takes about 30 to 60 seconds for one to open. About 10 to 20 open each night on a plant and they all fade by noon the next day.
♦ This is in real time, not a time lapse.
Nastic movement because there is nothing in any direction that prompts this behavior.
This is a preprogrammed response for this to happen at night.

LOL, dh asked about pollination, and I told him they're open until noon the next day.
He laughed and said they only serve breakfast. =)

►More nastic movment videos at Plants-in-Motion. Click on the side titles.


(2) p. 465-466 , Water Absorption in Plants
Clay, Silt, or Sand
She says equal parts of each, but for a good loam, Sand and Silt should actually be 40% each, and Clay less than 20%.


How to test your own soil


Now that you know what is a good loam, and maybe what your own soil's content is, how much you should water your garden?


(3) p. 466-469 , Water Transport in Plants
Transpiration - water up the xylem and out the leaf.
Translocation - sugars down the phloem. (great video!)


(4) p. 469-471 , Plant Growth
Hormones in plants


Remember the difference between nastic movement and tropisms?
Tropisms can be a movement OR a growth response.
Phototropism, and a little about gravitropism
These are growth responses as a result of the direction of the stimulus - the sun, or gravity.

Watch these bush beans as they grow toward the sun. (phototropism)
Then watch as shadows move over them - they ALL lean toward the sun. (heliotropism)
(Video was shot over a 24 hour period.)
Growth and Movement response is a result of the direction of the stimulus - the sun.


Thigmotropism - response to touch (what the plant touches, not what touches the plant - like a human or animal)
Growth response as a result of the direction of the stimulus - the pole. The vine would not grow this direction if it were not for the pole.
LOL at the spider that comes down at 0:12 =D

►More tropism videos at Plants-in-Motion. Click on the side titles.
You will see that there is a video for Sunflower phototropism, as well as one for Sunflower solar tracking, also called heliotropism. (Read the info on each video.)

(5) p. 473-475 , Reproduction in Plants: Vegetative Reproduction
Asexual reproduction


(6) 475b-478 , Sexual Reproduction in Phylum Anthophyta (flowers)

(7), p. 480-484 , The Reproductive Process in Anthophytes, Part 1: Forming Pollen and Embryo Sacs Part 2: Pollination Part 3: Fertilization


(8) p. 485-488 , Seeds and Fruits
This is a chart I made to see at a glance the classification of fruits.
These are the ones used in your Biology book.


(9) p. 489-190 , Germination and Early Growth
Beans -- dicotyledons
"Epigeal germination
"Filmed underground to show the roots growing, the hypocotyl grows and pulls the cotyledons up through the soil and above ground. The protective skin called the testa remains underground.
"The cotyledons feed the plant until its strong enough to support itself. When spent [used up], the cotyledons can drop off.
"9-12 minute interval between exposures. This sequence was filmed over a period of about 4 weeks."
--from Neil Bromhall
The cotyledons (the 2 halves of the bean) stay on the stem for a bit as it grows, and are food for the plant until photosynthesis in the leaf can begin.


This activity is intended as an exercise in deductive logic. The students perform a series of "experiments" in which they try to identify which predators eat which specific prey (Each predator eats one and only one prey). The instructions are on the site. students may also click on the blue square to make the game full screen. A worksheet is added for students to record their results. This also is an exercise in articulating the logic used in the study. (Most students have no trouble figuring out the relationships). Writing down their results and conclusions is a bit trickier. ) This has been used for community college classes. It can be used at lower levels such as high school or even middle school without the worksheet.


Society for Conservation Biology

The Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) serves as the premier international membership society for professionals, students and non-profits dedicated to advancing the science and practice of conserving biodiversity.

Mission

To advance the science and practice of conserving Earth’s biological diversity.

Vision

We envision a world where people understand, value, and conserve the diversity of life on Earth and where SCB, a globally diverse, equitable, and inclusive community, serves as a leading voice for the scientific study and conservation of Earth’s biological diversity.

SCB's global forum for addressing conservation challenges and presenting research.

Smith Fellows 2022 Call for Proposals

We are creating a truly global collaborative network. Learn more about SCB's transition.

SCB Webinar Series: Conservation Voices

Join our online community to start connecting!

Check out our 2021 schedule!

The June issue of Conservation Biology is now available!

Become an Organizational Member of SCB! Learn more about the benefits.

​Get to know SCB’s next BoG President, Tony Lynam! From the conservationist he admires the most, to what advice he would give to an aspiring conservationist.


Overview

Description

For courses in general biology.

Setting the standard for excellence, accuracy, and innovation
Campbell Biologydelivers a trusted, accurate, current, and pedagogically innovative experience that guides students to a true understanding of biology. The author team advances Neil Campbells vision of meeting and equipping students at their individual skill levels by developing tools, visuals, resources, and activities that encourage participation and engage students in their learning. Known for strategically integrating text and artwork, this trusted course solution works hand in hand with Mastering Biology to reinforce key concepts, build scientific skills, and promote active learning. The 12th Edition meets demonstrated student needs with new student-centered features, expanded interactivity in the eText, downloadable Reading Guide worksheets that emphasize key concepts, and a fully revised assessment program.

Reach every student with Mastering Biology with Pearson eText
Mastering ® is the teaching and learning platform that empowers you to reach every student. By combining trusted author content with digital tools developed to engage students and emulate the office-hour experience, Mastering personalizes learning and improves results for each student. Mastering Biology extends learning and provides students with a platform to practice, learn, and apply knowledge outside of the classroom. Learn more about Mastering Biology.

Pearson eText is an easy-to-use digital textbook available within Mastering that lets students read, highlight, take notes, and review key vocabulary all in one place. If youre not using Mastering, students can purchase Pearson eText on their own or you can assign it as a course to schedule readings, view student usage analytics, and share your own notes with students. Learn more about Pearson eText.


Resource Log

Module#12 - Arthropods Arthropods! What are they. Watch the first couple of videos to find out. There are so many varieties that some don't even seem to fit in the same phylum.
►In this post, there are several videos that did not have an embed code, so I just posted the link.

  • Dorsal - referring to the back, or it might seem to be the top if the animal is not upright like a human, but it is its back. Like a dorsal fin on the back of a fish.
  • Ventral - referring to the front, or belly-side of an organism.
  • Anterior - in front of, or the end that contains an organism's head.
  • Posterior - in back of, or the end that contains an organism's tail.

Remember the order of the biological classification:

Barnacles "sweeping" the water to gather any plankton floating about.

read 380-385 draw 12.9

(6) p. 380 , Classes Chilopoda and Diplopoda

► Watch this Millipede (has 2 sets of legs on each body segment)

(7) p. 381-385 , Class Insecta

Complete Metamorphosis
4 stages: egg, larva, pupa, adult
The embedding was disabled by the person who posted these videos, so you will have to click on the links to watch. These are simply amazing.
► Monarch butterfly laying eggs
► Monarch caterpillar growing
► Monarch caterpillar changing into chrysalis
► Monarch butterfly metamorphosis

Incomplete Metamorphosis
3 stages: egg, nymph, adult
► Preying Mantis life cycle

(8) p. 385-388 , A Few Orders in Class Insecta

Order Hymenoptera: Ants, Bees, and Wasps ("social" insects - live in colonies)



Features

Key Concepts: Each chapter in the Tenth Edition is organized around a manageable framework of three to six Key Concepts that provide the context for supporting details, helping students distinguish the forest from the trees.

Make Connections: The Tenth Edition helps students make connections across biology topics.

Scientific Inquiry Skills: The Tenth Edition teaches scientific skills in every chapter and engages students in scientific inquiry, revealing “how we know what we know” and helping students develop their critical-thinking and inquiry skills and revealing "how we know what we know."

Genomics: The Tenth Edition explores the impact of genomics across biology. Throughout the Tenth Edition, new examples show students how our ability to sequence DNA and proteins rapidly and inexpensively is transforming every subfield of biology, from cell biology to physiology to ecology.

Evolution: The core theme of evolution is emphasized throughout the Tenth Edition.

Art: Carefully crafted figures help visual learners understand complex structures and processes and organize material into a clear hierarchy of ideas.

Online Homework: MasteringBiology® is an online homework, tutorial, and assessment program designed to improve results by helping students quickly master concepts. Students benefit from self-paced tutorials that feature immediate wrong-answer feedback and hints that emulate the office-hour experience. All assignments are automatically graded and entered into a powerful gradebook. For more information, see the description of MasteringBiology under “eLearning & Assessment.”

MasteringBiology Reading Quizzes motivate the students to read the text prior to class.

Scientific Skills Exercises and Interpret the Data questions in the text help students build key skills in biology. These exercises and questions are also assignable in MasteringBiology.

Concept Check questions, What If Questions, Make Connection questions, Draw It questions, figure legend questions, multiple-choice questions, and short-answer essay questions in the text help students assess their own learning.

Clicker Questions promote active learning in class.

New to This Edition

Make Connections: The Tenth Edition helps students make connections visually.

  • NEW! Make Connections Figures pull together content from different chapters and provide a visual representation of “big picture” relationships. These figures help overcome students’ tendencies to compartmentalize information by reinforcing deeper conceptual connections throughout biology. For example, Figure 10.23, “Make Connections: The Working Cell,” uses striking three-dimensional artwork to illustrate how a generalized plant cell functions, integrating the cellular activities students learned about in Chapters 5-10. In Figure 40.22, “Make Connections: Life Challenges and Solutions in Plants and Animals,” pairs of engaging photos with text descriptions underscore how fundamental principles of physiology apply to diverse organisms.
  • NEW! Synthesize Your Knowledge Questions at the end of the chapter ask students to apply their understanding of the chapter content to explain an intriguing photo.

Scientific Inquiry Skills: The Tenth Edition teaches key skills needed for further biology studies.

  • NEW! Scientific Skills Exercises in every chapter use real data to build key scientific thinking skills, including data analysis, graphing, experimental design, and math skills. Scientific Skills Exercises include:
      • Making a Line Graph and Calculating a Slope
      • Interpreting Histograms
      • Using the Chi-Square Test
      • Analyzing DNA Deletion Experiments
      • Making and Testing Predictions
      • Interpreting Data in a Phylogenetic Tree
      • Using the Hardy-Weinberg Equation to Interpret Data and Make Predictions
      • Interpreting Data Values Expressed in Scientific Notation
      • Interpreting a Graph with Log Scales
      • Using the Logistic Equation to Model Population Growth

      Genomics: The Tenth Edition explores the impact of genomics across biology.

      Throughout the Tenth Edition, new examples show students how our ability to sequence DNA and proteins rapidly and inexpensively is transforming every subfield of biology, from cell biology to physiology to ecology.

      • NEW! The basic steps of gene expression are now shown in Chapter 1 so that students have an understanding of how genes determine the characteristics of an organism from the very beginning of their study of biology.
      • NEW! Chapter 5 concludes with a new concept, “Genomics and proteomics have transformed biological inquiry and applications,” introducing these topics early in the book. This concept also includes a new Make Connections Figure, “Contributions of Genomics and Proteomics to Biology,” which previews some examples of how genomics and proteomics have helped shed light on biological questions. These examples are explored in greater depth later in the text.
      • NEW! Throughout the Tenth Edition, new examples show how biology is being revolutionized by DNA and protein sequence analysis. For example, Chapter 41 includes new material on what genomic studies tell us about how the bacterium Helicobacter pylori disrupts human health, including Figure 41.12 on the phylogenetics of the stomach microbiome.

      Online Homework: MasteringBiology offers a wide variety of engaging assignment options to help all students succeed.

      • NEW! All 56 Scientific Skills Exercises from the text can be assigned in MasteringBiology to help students build key skills including data analysis, graphing, experimental design, and math skills.
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      10.5: Chapter Resources - Biology

      New International Version
      “After that you will go to Gibeah of God, where there is a Philistine outpost. As you approach the town, you will meet a procession of prophets coming down from the high place with lyres, timbrels, pipes and harps being played before them, and they will be prophesying.

      New Living Translation
      “When you arrive at Gibeah of God, where the garrison of the Philistines is located, you will meet a band of prophets coming down from the place of worship. They will be playing a harp, a tambourine, a flute, and a lyre, and they will be prophesying.

      English Standard Version
      After that you shall come to Gibeath-elohim, where there is a garrison of the Philistines. And there, as soon as you come to the city, you will meet a group of prophets coming down from the high place with harp, tambourine, flute, and lyre before them, prophesying.

      Berean Study Bible
      After that you will come to Gibeah of God, where the Philistines have an outpost. As you approach the city, you will meet a group of prophets coming down from the high place, preceded by harps, tambourines, flutes, and lyres, and they will be prophesying.

      King James Bible
      After that thou shalt come to the hill of God, where is the garrison of the Philistines: and it shall come to pass, when thou art come thither to the city, that thou shalt meet a company of prophets coming down from the high place with a psaltery, and a tabret, and a pipe, and a harp, before them and they shall prophesy:

      New King James Version
      After that you shall come to the hill of God where the Philistine garrison is. And it will happen, when you have come there to the city, that you will meet a group of prophets coming down from the high place with a stringed instrument, a tambourine, a flute, and a harp before them and they will be prophesying.

      New American Standard Bible
      Afterward you will come to the hill of God where the Philistine garrison is and it shall be as soon as you have come there to the city, that you will meet a group of prophets coming down from the high place with harp, tambourine, flute, and a lyre in front of them, and they will be prophesying.

      NASB 1995
      “Afterward you will come to the hill of God where the Philistine garrison is and it shall be as soon as you have come there to the city, that you will meet a group of prophets coming down from the high place with harp, tambourine, flute, and a lyre before them, and they will be prophesying.

      NASB 1977
      “Afterward you will come to the hill of God where the Philistine garrison is and it shall be as soon as you have come there to the city, that you will meet a group of prophets coming down from the high place with harp, tambourine, flute, and a lyre before them, and they will be prophesying.

      Amplified Bible
      After that you will come to the hill of God where the garrison of the Philistines is and when you come there to the city, you will meet a group of prophets coming down from the high place [of worship] with harp, tambourine, flute, and lyre before them, and they will be prophesying.

      Christian Standard Bible
      “After that you will come to Gibeah of God where there are Philistine garrisons. When you arrive at the city, you will meet a group of prophets coming down from the high place prophesying. They will be preceded by harps, tambourines, flutes, and lyres.

      Holman Christian Standard Bible
      “After that you will come to the Hill of God where there are Philistine garrisons. When you arrive at the city, you will meet a group of prophets coming down from the high place prophesying. They will be preceded by harps, tambourines, flutes, and lyres.

      American Standard Version
      After that thou shalt come to the hill of God, where is the garrison of the Philistines: and it shall come to pass, when thou art come thither to the city, that thou shalt meet a band of prophets coming down from the high place with a psaltery, and a timbrel, and a pipe, and a harp, before them and they will be prophesying:

      Aramaic Bible in Plain English
      And after that you shall come to the hill of God where there is a monument of the Philistines, and when you have arrived there in the city, behold, you will meet with a band of Prophets that came down from the high place, and in front of them are psalteries and harps and tambourines and timbrels, and they prophesy

      Brenton Septuagint Translation
      And afterward thou shalt go to the hill of God, where is the encampment of the Philistines there is Nasib the Philistine: an it shall come to pass when ye shall have entered into the city, that thou shalt meet a band of prophets coming down from the Bama and before them will be lutes, and a drum, and a pipe, and a harp, and they shall prophesy.

      Contemporary English Version
      Next, go to Gibeah, where the Philistines have an army camp. As you're going into the town, you'll meet a group of prophets coming down from the place of worship. They'll be going along prophesying while others are walking in front of them, playing small harps, small drums, and flutes.

      Douay-Rheims Bible
      After that thou shalt come to the hill of God, where the garrison of the Philistines is: and when thou shalt be come there into the city, thou shalt meet a company of prophets coming down from the high place, with a psaltery and a timbrel, and a pipe, and a harp before them, and they shall be prophesying.

      English Revised Version
      After that thou shalt come to the hill of God, where is the garrison of the Philistines: and it shall come to pass, when thou art come thither to the city, that thou shalt meet a band of prophets coming down from the high place with a psaltery, and a timbrel, and a pipe, and a harp, before them and they shall be prophesying:

      Good News Translation
      Then you will go to the Hill of God in Gibeah, where there is a Philistine camp. At the entrance to the town you will meet a group of prophets coming down from the altar on the hill, playing harps, drums, flutes, and lyres. They will be dancing and shouting.

      GOD'S WORD® Translation
      After that, you will come to the hill of God, where the Philistines have a military post. When you arrive at the city, you will meet a group of prophets prophesying as they come from the worship site. They will be led by men playing a harp, a tambourine, a flute, and a lyre.

      International Standard Version
      "After that you will come to Gibeath-elohim where the Philistine garrison is. As you arrive there at the town, you'll meet a band of prophets coming down from the high place with a harp, tambourine, flute, and lyre being played in front of them, and they'll be prophesying.

      JPS Tanakh 1917
      After that thou shalt come to the hill of God, where is the garrison of the Philistines and it shall come to pass, when thou art come thither to the city, that thou shalt meet a band of prophets coming down from the high place with a psaltery, and a timbrel, and a pipe, and a harp, before them and they will be prophesying.

      Literal Standard Version
      Afterward you come to the hill of God, where the garrison of the Philistines [is], and it comes to pass, at your coming in there to the city, that you have met a band of prophets coming down from the high place, and before them stringed instrument, and tambourine, and pipe, and harp, and they are prophesying

      NET Bible
      Afterward you will go to Gibeah of God, where there are Philistine officials. When you enter the town, you will meet a company of prophets coming down from the high place. They will have harps, tambourines, flutes, and lyres, and they will be prophesying.

      New Heart English Bible
      "After that you shall come to Gibeath Elohim, where the Philistine garrison is. And it shall happen, when you have come there to the city, that you shall meet a band of prophets coming down from the high place with a psaltery, and a tambourine, and a pipe, and a harp, before them and they will be prophesying:

      World English Bible
      "After that you shall come to the hill of God, where is the garrison of the Philistines: and it shall happen, when you have come there to the city, that you shall meet a band of prophets coming down from the high place with a psaltery, and a tambourine, and a pipe, and a harp, before them and they will be prophesying:

      Young's Literal Translation
      Afterwards thou dost come unto the hill of God, where the garrison of the Philistines is, and it cometh to pass, at thy coming in thither to the city, that thou hast met a band of prophets coming down from the high place, and before them psaltery, and tabret, and pipe, and harp, and they are prophesying

      1 Corinthians 14:1
      Earnestly pursue love and eagerly desire spiritual gifts, especially the gift of prophecy.

      1 Samuel 9:12
      "Yes, he is ahead of you," they answered. "Hurry now, for today he has come to the city because the people have a sacrifice on the high place.

      1 Samuel 10:4
      They will greet you and give you two loaves of bread, which you will accept from their hands.

      1 Samuel 10:10
      When Saul and his servant arrived at Gibeah, a group of prophets met him. Then the Spirit of God rushed upon him, and he prophesied along with them.

      1 Samuel 13:2
      He chose for himself three thousand men of Israel: Two thousand were with Saul at Michmash and in the hill country of Bethel, and a thousand were with Jonathan in Gibeah of Benjamin. And the rest of the troops he sent away, each to his own home.

      1 Samuel 13:3
      Then Jonathan attacked the Philistine outpost at Geba, and the Philistines heard about it. So Saul blew the ram's horn throughout the land, saying, "Let the Hebrews hear!"

      1 Samuel 19:20
      he sent messengers to capture him. But when they saw the group of prophets prophesying, with Samuel leading them, the Spirit of God came upon them, and Saul's messengers also began to prophesy.

      After that you shall come to the hill of God, where is the garrison of the Philistines: and it shall come to pass, when you are come thither to the city, that you shall meet a company of prophets coming down from the high place with a psaltery, and a tabret, and a pipe, and a harp, before them and they shall prophesy:

      1 Samuel 10:10 And when they came thither to the hill, behold, a company of prophets met him and the Spirit of God came upon him, and he prophesied among them.

      1 Samuel 13:3 And Jonathan smote the garrison of the Philistines that was in Geba, and the Philistines heard of it. And Saul blew the trumpet throughout all the land, saying, Let the Hebrews hear.

      1 Samuel 19:20 And Saul sent messengers to take David: and when they saw the company of the prophets prophesying, and Samuel standing as appointed over them, the Spirit of God was upon the messengers of Saul, and they also prophesied.

      2 Kings 2:3,5,15 And the sons of the prophets that were at Bethel came forth to Elisha, and said unto him, Knowest thou that the LORD will take away thy master from thy head to day? And he said, Yea, I know it hold ye your peace…

      2 Kings 4:38 And Elisha came again to Gilgal: and there was a dearth in the land and the sons of the prophets were sitting before him: and he said unto his servant, Set on the great pot, and seethe pottage for the sons of the prophets.

      Exodus 15:20,21 And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances…

      2 Kings 3:15 But now bring me a minstrel. And it came to pass, when the minstrel played, that the hand of the LORD came upon him.

      1 Chronicles 13:8 And David and all Israel played before God with all their might, and with singing, and with harps, and with psalteries, and with timbrels, and with cymbals, and with trumpets.

      Where is the garrison of the Philistines. --These warlike Ph?nician tribes seem gradually, after their great defeat at Mizpeh, to have again established themselves in various stations of the land, whence they harried the Israelites. A parallel to these marauding soldiers, so long the plague of Israel, might be found in the countless freebooters' strongholds which, in the Middle Ages, were the curse especially of Germany, the terror of the peaceful trading folk of the rich countries of Central Europe.

      A company of prophets. --These evidently belonged to one of those seminaries termed "schools of the prophets," founded by Samuel for the training of young men. The foundation of these schools in different parts of the country was one of the greatest of the works of this noble and patriotic man. These schools seem to have flourished during the whole period of the monarchy, and in no small measure contributed to the moral and mental development of the people. Some of the youth of Israel who received in these schools their training became public preachers of the Word for after all, this, rather than foretelling future events, was the grand duty of the prophet's calling.

      It is a grave mistake to conclude that all, or even the greater part, of these young men trained in the "schools of the prophets" were inspired in the usual sense of the word. The aim of these institutions, beside high mental culture, seems to have been to train the youth of Israel to love, and then live, noble pure lives. Dean Payne Smith calls attention to the remarkable fact that at David's court all posts which required literary skill were held by "prophets." He considers that it was owing to these great educational institutions which Samuel founded that the Israelites became a highly trained and literary people. "Prophets," in the awful sense of the word as used by us--men who, as compared with their fellows, stood in a different relation to the Most High, who heard things which other men heard not, and saw visions unseen by any save themselves--men before whose eyes the veil which hid the dark future now and again was raised--were, after all, even among the people of God, very rare. In the course of a generation, one or two, or perhaps three, appeared, and were listened to, and their words in many cases, we know, preserved. These, for the most part, we may assume, received their early training in the "schools of the prophets," but these famous institutions were never, as has often been popularly supposed, established in the hope of training up and developing such men, but were founded and supported with the intention of fostering what we should call the higher education in Israel and in this, we know from the outset, these schools were eminently successful.

      Dr. Erdmann, in Lange's Commentary, accounts for this especial mention of the music which we know, from this and other passages, was carefully cultivated in these seminaries of the sons of the prophets, by suggesting that in these societies religious feeling was nourished and heightened by sacred music. It would be a mistake to attribute to this carefully cultivated music and singing that condition of ecstatic inspiration into which some of these companies appear to have at times fallen. We understand and know, however, very little respecting this state of ecstasy--what produced it, and how it affected those who had fallen into this strange condition. The object of the musical teaching of the schools of the prophets was, no doubt, to enable those who had studied in the seminaries to guide and direct the religious gatherings of the people, into which--as we know from the subsequent Temple service, the model of all popular sacred gatherings for worship--music and psalmody entered so largely.

      With a psaltery, and a tabret, and a pipe, and a harp, before them.--The four instruments here mentioned indicate that even in this--which is often termed a semi-barbarous age--music had been long and carefully studied. The psaltery ( nevel ) was a species of lyre with ten strings, in shape like an inverted delta v, and was played with the fingers. The tabret ( toph ) was a hand-drum--a tambourine. Miriam (Exodus 15:20) is represented as using it to accompany her triumph song. The pipe ( chalil ) was a flute of reed, wood, or horn, and seems to have been ever a favourite instrument among the children of Israel. The harp ( cinnor ) was a stringed instrument, like the psaltery, only apparently larger, and was played usually with a plectrum. David, however, is represented in several psalms as playing on the " cinnor" with his fingers.

      And they shall prophesy. --In this case the company from the "School of the Prophets" were, no doubt, singing some hymns or psalms in praise of the Eternal to the accompaniment of their musical instruments. Saul, as he drew near his home at Gibeah, would meet these men coming down from sacrificing on the high place of God, and as he listened to the sweet pure sounds he would be sensible of a something indescribable taking possession of his whole being new thoughts--high grand thoughts--would chase away the aspirations and hopes of the past. Through his heart (see 1Samuel 10:9) would flash the memory of what Samuel had told him when alone on the house-top at Ramah--of the glory and future of Israel a conviction would steal over him that he was the man of the future chosen by the Eternal to work His will among His people. The Saul of the vineyards and the corn-fields of the farm on the Ephraim hills would die, and a new hero-Saul would be born and although quite untrained and untaught in the elaborate music of the choirs of the sons of the prophets, the really inspired Saul would lift up his voice in the choruses singing before him, and join with a new strange power in their glorious hymn to the Eternal--would pour out his whole heart and soul in thanksgiving to his God. Thus would the Spirit of the Lord come upon him.


      The creatures living in the soil are critical to soil health. They affect soil structure and therefore soil erosion and water availability. They can protect crops from pests and diseases. They are central to decomposition and nutrient cycling and therefore affect plant growth and amounts of pollutants in the environment. Finally, the soil is home to a large proportion of the world's genetic diversity.

      Soil Biology Primer

      The online Soil Biology Primer is an introduction to the living component of soil and how it contributes to agricultural productivity and air and water quality. The Primer includes chapters describing the soil food web and its relationship to soil health and chapters about soil bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, arthropods, and earthworms.

      The online Primer includes all of the text of the printed original, but not all of the images of the soil organisms. The full story of the soil food web is more easily understood with the help of the illustrations in the printed version.

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      Acknowledgements

      The Natural Resources Conservation Service, with assistance from the Conservation Technology Information Center, provided leadership for this project. The Natural Resources Conservation Service and the Soil and Water Conservation Society thank many individuals, including the following, for their contributions.


      Watch the video: Konkurrenz zwischen Tieren (May 2022).