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So after a fair amount of research I found out skintone can be altered to some extent using cysteine and other sulfur compounds. This can be done temporarily but is not permanent as a result of the genes your parents gave you. My case is a little diffrent however as my predisposed skin color was much fairer before my negleticion of sunscreen/ proper skincare. My question is if someone's body used to produce a LOT of phenomelanin (a lighter toned black person) as a child but got tanned visiting very hot tropical countries & due to playing sports and things can one ever go back to producing those high amounts of phenomelanin after taking cysteine in large amount for an extended time? And can this change be permanent? I have noticed my relatives who have stayed indoors all their lives did not have a dramatic change in skin color and stayed the same unlike me as well unlike me what is the science behind that? Can sun damage that has shifted melanin levels to increase ever be reversed or have I been producing such high amounts that it will be near impossible to go back. I'm very curious in the mechanisms behind why people tend to think my adosclenet pictures are a total different person while others I know look EXACTLY the same as when they were 5 years old. I am an eighteen year old male currently and in skin tone went from The Weeknd to Will smith to Kobe Bryant in skintone. Lastly I have heard of celebrities using Ivs and even heard of one soccer player who's story is very similar to mine who apparently did something that “ suppressed MCH, or the melanin concentrating hormone. What is this and is this really possible? I am not desperate to be once again a light skinned individual but I was very curious in the human body and how things can change naturally as well as manually using natural compounds. Thank you.
Melanin is the primary regulator of how much solar radiation penetrates your skin. According to a 2009 study in the Journal of Photochemical Photobiology, melanin has a range of protective effects. It's able to protect against sun-induced skin cancer and has antioxidant properties.
Notably, there are different types of melanin. Eumelanin is the protective dark pigment, while pheomelanin is a yellow-red pigment that can be tied to mutations and cancer.
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The Biology of Ejaculation
Sex is, in many ways, a function of the mind.
Physical arousal can take place by direct stimulation. It can also take place without any direct stimulation. Sex therapists often recommend "sexy thoughts" as an intervention, because thinking about sex can be a turn on in and of itself.
How does that work? The same way that many thoughts are processed—through the production of various neurotransmitters. That's how nerve cells communicate with each other. They release and respond to neurotransmitters, including:
Much of our understanding of the role of neurotransmitters and brain structures in arousal and orgasm comes from animal research. However, there have been human studies as well.
Through research, scientists have learned that several areas of the brain are associated with male sexual function.
The medial preoptic area (MPOA) of the hypothalamus is central to the sexual response. This is where sexual stimuli from various parts of the body come together for processing.
The brain then sends signals down the spinal cord that cause the body to become aroused and then orgasm. Parts of the amygdala and the parietal cortex are also important in the control of ejaculation.
Raising Phenomelanin in skin permanently/semi permanently - Biology
By Dr. Wes Neal
Associate Extension Professor
FWRC-Wildlife, Fisheries & Aquaculture
MISSISSIPPI STATE -- Many landowners would like to fish for crappie in their ponds and small lakes, but crappie can cause major problems in smaller waters.
The diet of crappie is very similar to the diet of other desired pond species, such as bass and bream. This overlap in dietary needs between species is not a problem when the population of crappie in a pond is low.
Crappie have a tendency to produce inconsistent numbers of young. After stocking a pond, you may not have many crappie for several years. Then suddenly, for reasons that are not clear, the crappie population will explode and fill the pond with small, hungry crappie.
When a swarm of young crappie enter a pond, they eat all of the food needed by both bass and bream. This causes bass and bream to grow slowly and become thin. So if you have a pond in which good fishing for bass and bream is important, do not stock crappie.
If you already have crappie in a small lake or pond, or if you absolutely must stock crappie, there are some things you can do to improve your chances at successfully raising this species.
The key to raising larger crappie is to increase the abundance of predators by overcrowding the pond with bass. Large numbers of small, hungry bass will eat most of the young crappie, even in boom years of the crappie lifecycle. Fewer crappie means more food available to fewer fish. As a result, the crappie will grow better and larger.
If so, there are a few things you should know. There are two species of crappie, but black crappie are best suited for ponds. The easiest way to tell the two apart is to count the spines on the fin on the crappie’s back. White crappie have 5 to 6 spines, while black crappie have 7 to 8 spines.
Before introducing crappie, be sure your pond will be clear most of the time. This means you should be able to see a light-colored object in 18 to 24 inches of water, except for a few days following heavy rainfall and runoff. Crappie are sight feeders and will not do well in muddy water.
Stock 15 adult black crappie per acre in either an established pond with balanced numbers of bass and bluegill or in one that is bass-crowded. Catch and remove all bass longer than 15 inches.
Never harvest smaller bass. These smaller bass will control the crappie population and allow the remaining fish to grow faster.
Good crappie fishing in farm ponds is difficult to maintain for long periods of time. If the pond gets out of balance and overpopulated with small crappie, stock 30 to 50 adult bass that are 10 to 12 inches long, per acre. This will increase predation on the small crappie and help reduce the population size.
Winter drawdown is also an effective management technique to prevent crappie overcrowding. Draw down the pond to half its normal surface area early in the fall. Stop any bass harvesting during this time. The draw down makes it easier for bass to find and eat the crappie. Let the pond refill during the late winter and spring.
Unfortunately, you cannot have the best of both worlds. If you want crappie fishing, you must forget about quality bass fishing. A correctly managed crappie pond usually will not have big largemouth bass to catch. Choose one species, and manage for that species.
For more information on crappie, bass and farm pond management, visit the Mississippi State University Extension fisheries web page at http://bit.ly/msufish.
Editor’s Note: Extension Outdoors is a column authored by several different experts in the Mississippi State University Extension Service.
What do the colors of a bruise mean?
Bruises happen when small blood vessels in the skin are damaged. Over time, a bruise changes color as the blood under the skin breaks down, and as the bruise heals.
Bruising typically occurs when a person receives an injury to an area of their skin, such as from falling or bumping into something.
The blood vessels between the skin and other tissues in the body burst. The blood pools under the surface of the skin, causing a bruise. It is natural for a bruise to change color during the healing process.
Read on to learn more about the usual cycle of bruising, and when a person should see their doctor about a bruise, for example, when it does not heal, returns or the pain intensifies.
A person may be able to estimate how old a bruise is from the color. As the body heals and breaks down the hemoglobin, or compound that gives blood its red color, the bruise will change in color. This is a regular part of the healing process.
However, skin color affects the appearance of a bruise. Those with medium skin tones had more red and yellow to their bruises, while darker skin tones displayed darker bruises.
During the healing process, a bruise will usually go through the following colors:
- It often starts red because fresh, oxygen-rich blood has newly pooled underneath the skin.
- After around 1–2 days, the blood begins to lose oxygen and change color. A bruise that is a few days old will often appear blue, purple, or even black.
- In about 5–10 days, it turns a yellow or green color. These colors come from compounds called biliverdin and bilirubin that the body produces when it breaks down hemoglobin.
- After 10–14 days, it will turn to a shade of yellowish-brown or light brown.
Finally, once the bruise has turned a light brown, it will begin to fade. Most bruises will disappear without treatment within about 2 weeks.
Bruises are not typically something to cause undue worry. Often, they are a surface injury that requires no medical attention, and people can treat them at home.
But, in some cases, a person may want to seek medical attention for their bruising.
One common issue is a hematoma. A hematoma is a large collection of blood that becomes trapped within tissues. It is often related to more significant trauma.
When a hematoma occurs, the body cannot heal the bruise as easily or quickly as a minor injury. As a result, a hematoma stays the same color, firmness, and causes the same level of pain even after several days.
A person may need medical attention to find out if the hematoma requires further treatment.
The location, size, and cause of the hematoma will determine how to treat it.
Some of the warning signs that a person needs medical attention include bruising that:
- causes an arm or leg to become numb
- causes loss of function of a joint, limb or muscle
- keeps growing in size
- recurs in the same spot or lasts longer than 2 weeks
- happens alongside a broken bone
- occurs on the head or neck
- causes vision impairment
- occurs with no known cause on the abdomen, head, or trunk, as this may signal a problem with an internal organ
People may want to try to speed healing or lessen any pain associated with bruising. There are some potential at-home methods they can try, as described here:
Use an ice pack
One of the first steps to helping a bruise heal is to apply ice to the area. People can ice the area with anything frozen, such as a freezer pack or a bag of frozen vegetables.
Wrap the cold object in a towel or cloth and apply to the affected area. Do not apply a cold pack directly to the skin, as this can cause further injury.
When a person applies ice to a new bruise, it helps to slow bleeding down and lessen the swelling. This can reduce the overall size of the bruise, as it prevents blood from leaking further and reduces inflammation.
Use healing creams
Many people use arnica, quercetin, vitamin B-3, or vitamin K creams to help speed up bruise healing times.
People can also use over-the-counter pain medicine, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to reduce pain and inflammation around the bruise. Avoid aspirin, as it can increase bleeding.
Avoiding NSAIDs may also be necessary when bruising occurs after surgery or with extensive bruises, as these drugs risk worsening the bleeding. People should check with their doctor before taking any NSAIDs if they have this bruising.
The use of a soft elastic wrap, during waking hours, for the first 1–2 days can help decrease bruising and discomfort after an injury.
The wrap should be firm but not tight. Numbness, tingling or increased discomfort means the wrap should be loosened or removed.
Raise the affected area
Elevating the bruised area has a similar effect to icing the bruise. It helps prevent the bruise from getting bigger. The individual should raise the affected area to a comfortable position.
3 REGULATION OF SKIN PIGMENTATION
3.1 Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R)
A central determinant of the capacity of melanocytes to produce melanin is the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a 317 amino acid G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the plasma membrane of melanocytes. Cloned in 1992 (Mountjoy et al., 1992 ), the MC1R is among the most important genetic determinants of pigmentation and skin cancer risk in the general population because it regulates eumelanin–pheomelanin balance and also how melanocytes respond to UV exposure. In its functional wild-type state, the MC1R interacts with either of two high-affinity agonistic ligands—adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Each activates transmembrane adenylyl cyclase (TMAC) through their binding to MC1R to induce cAMP second messenger production and downstream signaling pathway activation. In melanocytes, cAMP signaling pathway activates key transcriptional networks that induce melanocyte differentiation. Microphthalmia (Mitf) is one key cAMP-activated protein (Price et al., 1998 ). It is a master transcription factor in melanocytes that promotes differentiation and pigment induction by binding to specific DNA sequences termed “E boxes” in key pigmentation and differentiation gene regulatory regions and stimulating transcription of tyrosinase and other pigment enzyme genes to upregulate eumelanin production (Bertolotto et al., 1996 , 1998 Levy et al., 2006 ).
The human MC1R gene is highly polymorphic with loss of function mutations likely selected among populations that migrated away from UV-rich equatorial regions in order to diminish epidermal eumelanin levels to maximize UV-mediated vitamin D production in more temperate UV-poor climates (Harding et al., 2000 ). These polymorphisms correlate with a fair-skinned phenotype and impaired adaptive pigmentation (tanning) response (Valverde et al., 1995 ). Indeed, Cui and co-workers reported that MC1R is central to the skin's response to UV damage, via a p53-dependent upregulation of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in keratinocytes that produce MSH and ACTH to stimulate eumelanin production by epidermal melanocytes in a paracrine manner (Cui et al., 2007 ). MC1R signaling is also pertinent to DNA damage and repair responses in melanocytes, with abundant evidence that cAMP signaling enhances the ability of melanocytes to resist UV photodamage (Bautista et al., 2020 Im et al., 1998 Kadekaro et al., 2005 , 2012 Song et al., tyrosinase and other pigmen 2009 Swope et al., tyrosinase and other pigmen 2012 ). MC1R loss-of-function polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of malignancy (Valverde et al., 1996 ), and therefore, there is great interest in attenuating cancer risk by cAMP-enhancing strategies.
Neutralizes Harmful Effects of Other Dangerous Radiation Other Than Ultraviolet
Melanin can absorb a great amount of energy and yet not produce a tremendous amount of heat when it absorbs this energy, because it can transform harmful energy into useful energy. According to dermatologist and dermapathologist Dr. Leon Edelstein, director of the National American West Skin Pathology Consultation Service, melanin can absorb tremendous quantities of energy of all kinds, including energy from sunlight, x-ray machines, and energy that is formed within cells during the metabolism of cells. His theory is that melanin has the ability to neutralize the potentially harmful effects of these energies.
Severe drought, other changes can cause permanent ecosystem disruption
An eight-year study has concluded that increasingly frequent and severe drought, dropping water tables and dried-up springs have pushed some aquatic desert ecosystems into "catastrophic regime change," from which many species will not recover.
The findings, just published in the journal Freshwater Biology, raise concerns that climate change, over-pumping of aquifers for urban water use, and land management may permanently affect which species can survive.
"Populations that have persisted for hundreds or thousands of years are now dying out," said David Lytle, an associate professor of zoology at Oregon State University. "Springs that used to be permanent are drying up. Streams that used to be perennial are now intermittent. And species that used to rise and fall in their populations are now disappearing."
The research, done by Lytle and doctoral candidate Michael Bogan, examined the effect of complete water loss and its subsequent impact on aquatic insect communities in a formerly perennial desert stream in Arizona's French Joe Canyon, before and after severe droughts in the early 2000s.
The stream completely dried up for a period in 2005, and again in 2008 and 2009, leading to what researchers called a rapid "regime shift" in which some species went locally extinct and others took their place. The ecosystem dynamics are now different and show no sign of returning to their former state. Six species were eliminated when the stream dried up, and 40 others became more abundant. Large-bodied "top predators" like the giant waterbug disappeared and were replaced by smaller "mesopredators" such as aquatic beetles.
"Before 2004, this area was like a beautiful oasis, with lots of vegetation, birds and rare species," Lytle said. "The spring has lost a number of key insect species, has a lot less water, and now has very different characteristics."
The phenomena, the researchers say, does not so much indicate the disappearance of life -- there is about as much abundance as before. It's just not the same.
"Our study focused on a single stream in isolation, but this process of drying and local extinction is happening across the desert Southwest," Bogan said. "Eventually this could lead to the loss of species from the entire region, or the complete extinction of species that rely on these desert oases."
Small streams such as this are of particular interest because they can be more easily observed and studied than larger rivers and streams, and may represent a microcosm of similar effects that are taking place across much of the American West, the researchers said. The speed and suddenness of some changes give species inadequate time to adapt.
"It's like comparing old-growth forests to second-growth forests," Lytle said. "There are still trees, but it's not the same ecosystem it used to be. These desert streams can be a window to help us see forces that are at work all around us, whether it's due to climate change, land management or other factors."
The researchers noted in their report that the last 30 years have been marked by a significant increase in drought severity in the Southwest. The drought that helped dry up French Joe Canyon in 2005 resulted in the lowest flow in Arizona streams in 60 years, and in many cases the lowest on record. At French Joe Canyon, the stream channel was completely dry to bedrock, leaving many aquatic invertebrates dead in the sediments.
That was probably "an unprecedented disturbance," the researchers said in their report. Community composition shifted dramatically, with longer-lived insects dying out and smaller, shorter-lived ones taking their places.
Conceptually similar events have taken place in the past in plant communities in the Florida Everglades, floodplains in Australia, and boreal forests following fire disturbance, other researchers have found. In the Southwest, climate change models predict longer, more frequent and more intense droughts in the coming century, the scientists noted in their study.
Long-term health effects of exposure to benzene
- The major effect of benzene from long-term exposure is on the blood. (Long-term exposure means exposure of a year or more.) Benzene causes harmful effects on the bone marrow and can cause a decrease in red blood cells, leading to anemia. It can also cause excessive bleeding and can affect the immune system, increasing the chance for infection.
- Some women who breathed high levels of benzene for many months had irregular menstrual periods and a decrease in the size of their ovaries. It is not known whether benzene exposure affects the developing fetus in pregnant women or fertility in men.
- Animal studies have shown low birth weights, delayed bone formation, and bone marrow damage when pregnant animals breathed benzene.
- The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has determined that benzene causes cancer in humans. Long-term exposure to high levels of benzene in the air can cause leukemia, cancer of the blood-forming organs.
Chronic Venous Insufficiency
Your veins return blood from your body to your heart.
They contain 1-way valves to prevent blood from flowing backwards. These valves are particular important in the legs, where the pull of gravity tends to encourage backward blood flow.
Chronic venous insufficiency commonly occurs in leg veins when blood vessel walls or valves stop working properly, causing increased vein blood pressure in the lower limbs and excessive fluid leakage into surrounding tissues 4. Symptoms include swelling in lower legs and varicose veins. Severe chronic venous insufficiency sometimes leads to the development of leg ulcers 349.
**The oral diosmin plus hesperidin drug formulation may improve symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency 349.
** Prescription citrus flavonoids have been shown to accelerate the process of leg ulcer healing in people with chronic venous insufficiency, according to an analysis of five clinical studies published in the September-October 2005 supplement to the medical journal "Angiology. 49"