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17.1: Introduction - Biology

17.1: Introduction - Biology


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Module 15 – Ecosystems and Biomes

Introduction

We began our work in this course looking at the smallest units of matter (as a reminder, matter is anything that has mass and takes up space). One topic within this module that I would like for you to consider is global climate change 1 .

Learning Outcomes

This module addresses the following Course Learning Outcomes listed in the Syllabus for this course:

  • Demonstrate knowledge of biological principles.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of scientific method.
  • Communicate scientific ideas through oral or written assignments.
  • Interpret scientific models such as formulas, graphs and tables.
  • Demonstrate problem solving methods in situations that are encountered outside of the classroom 1 .

Module Objectives

Upon completion of this module, the student will be able to:

  • Define ecosystem and biomes.
  • Describe how energy flows through the ecosystem.
  • Explore Earth’s physical environment.
  • Define climate.
  • Describe global climate change, the evidence for global climate change, and the effects of global climate change.
  • Identify Earth’s biomes.
  • Describe aquatic ecosystems 1 .

Botany: An Introduction to Plant Biology 6th Edition

The preparation of this Sixth Edition of Botany had two objectives: first, to emphasize the interactions between plants and other organisms, and second, to make plant biology more accessible and relevant to students and other readers.

The emphasis on plant interactions with the biosphere began several editions ago, as the reality of global climate change became clear. Previous editions explored the role of plants in the removal of greenhouse gases and also the loss of many forests by human activities. While thinking about the interrelationships of plants and people, I suspected that students would be interested in the ways in which plants interact with all other organisms. I believe it is more realistic and engaging to examine plant biology as one aspect of the set of all the interactions of organisms and Earth. To take a reductionist view of plant biology as just the anatomy, metabolism, and evolution of isolated plants is to miss out on many of the richest aspects of plant biology.

Consequently, in this Sixth Edition, a new Chapter 26: Community Ecology has been added to introduce students more fully to interactions between plants and their surroundings. Also, several existing chapters have had new material added to emphasize these interactions for example, there is a new discussion about ways in which plants detect attacks by fungi in Chapter 14: Development and Morphogenesis.

Making plant biology more accessible to students and everyone else was the reason I originally began writing this book 30 years ago. It has also been a primary concern in every new edition. Some reviewers and professors have felt that previous editions of Botany were too difficult for their students, and, to address their concerns, I have added a new Chapter 2: Overview of Plant Life. This is structured to provide a broad introduction to topics such as plant structure, metabolism, genetics, diversity, evolution, and ecology. An entire chapter was dedicated to this so that fundamental principles could be presented with just enough depth and breadth that any student or reader would obtain enough of an overview to feel ready to tackle any other part of the text. Many students will already be so familiar with plants that certain portions of Overview will be unnecessary, but they might benefit from other parts. For some students, all of Overview may be a valuable aid. Either way, it is meant to welcome everyone into the world of plant biology. I want all people to feel included in this book I do not want any part to be a barrier to anyone.

Several other elements make this Sixth Edition more accessible. First, a Pronunciation Guide has been added for those words that have made many of us feel uncertain: people will feel more comfortable with xylem, allele, or Rosaceae if they are confident they are pronouncing these words correctly. Also, every chapter now opens with two new elements, a list of Learning Objectives and a few Did You Know? facts. The first is designed to allow students to see the important topics immediately, the second is designed to attract their interest. All chapters now end with a new section entitled At the Next Level, which presents more advanced topics that some students might want to explore on their own.

A new Chapter 24: Ethnobotany: Plants and People has been added to both emphasize interactions between plants and other organisms (us humans) and to make the book more relevant to each readerâ&euro&trades life. Among the typical topics such as food and fibers, Box 24-3 Plants and People: Natural Drugs, Endangered Species, and Womenâ&euro&trades Rights discusses modern ethnobotanical problems that result from our increasing knowledge of plants and the cures they may provide. This new chapter does not replace the numerous Plants and People boxes that have been developed in previous editions those are all still present here.

One of the aims of this book is to encourage students to think about the intersection between the scientific world and themselves, including their religious beliefs. This has been an important part of Botany from the very first edition with the sections The Scientific Method and Areas Where the Scientific Method is Inappropriate. In this Sixth Edition, Box 2-4 Botany and Beyond: Noahâ&euro&trades Flood and Population Biology points out that studies of the Bible led directly to the establishment of two critically important scientific disciplines: population biology and demography. Box 17-1 Botany and Beyond: Species Are Populations, Not Types discusses how our modern concept of species has changed from our original concept that had been based on Genesis. The relationships between science and religion are touched on only occasionally, but I do not want students to think there is a complete gulf between their biology classes and their religious lives. Perhaps some instructors will use these sections of Botany to lecture more expansively on science and religion.

My ultimate goal is to teach about life in general. Every topic mentioned in this book should help the reader to more fully understand human biology, indeed to understand all of biology. No organism exists isolated from all others instead we all share one biology that encompasses all organisms. We are all in this together.

Do you like this book? Please share with your friends, let's read it !! :)


Biology 11 - Introduction to Biology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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presentations for free. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free. Or use it to upload your own PowerPoint slides so you can share them with your teachers, class, students, bosses, employees, customers, potential investors or the world. Or use it to create really cool photo slideshows - with 2D and 3D transitions, animation, and your choice of music - that you can share with your Facebook friends or Google+ circles. That's all free as well!


Mayo Clinic Staff. (n.d.). Hodgkin’s lymphoma [online article]. MayoClinic.org. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hodgkins-lymphoma/symptoms-causes/syc-20352646

Mayo Clinic Staff. (n.d.). Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma [online article]. MayoClinic.org. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/non-hodgkins-lymphoma/symptoms-causes/syc-20375680

The body system in humans and other animals that protects the organism by distinguishing foreign tissue and neutralizing potentially pathogenic organisms or substances.

A microorganism which causes disease.

The central nervous system organ inside the skull that is the control center of the nervous system.

A thin, tubular bundle of central nervous system tissue that extends from the brainstem down the back to the pelvis and connects the brain with the peripheral nervous system.

The major organ of the integumentary system that covers and protects the body and helps maintain homeostasis, for example, by regulating body temperature.

A slimy substance produced by mucous membranes that traps pathogens, particles, and debris.

The process by which a cell uses its plasma membrane to engulf a large particle, giving rise to an internal compartment called the phagosome.

An antibody, also known as an immunoglobulin, is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.


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17.1: Introduction - Biology

  • Classification Systems of the Diversity of Life
  • Carrying Capacity
  • Ecosystems in Homeostasis
  • Equilibrium and Disequilibrium

Unit 3: Heredity and Genetics

  • Mechanisms of Evolution
  • Evolution by Natural Selection NOTES, Video on Natural Selection
  • Evolution of Populations NOTES, Video on Causes of Evolution, Video on Selection, Video on Genetic Drift
  • Speciation and the Diversity of Life

o Mutation* 13.3 (see Heredity Unit)

o Natural selection* 16.3, 16.4, 17.3

o Variation of organisms within a species due to population genetics and

o Gene flow (immigration, emigration)* 17.2 1/22,

o History of life on Earth* 19.1, 19.2, 19.3

o Evolution always results in new species. 17.2

o Non-genetic traits can be passed to offspring. 17.2

o Genetic traits can be acquired when needed or lost when not needed. 17.1

o Evolution happens to an individual. 17.2

o Individual organisms choose to evolve. 17.3

o Variation is a response to selection pressure. 17.1

o The “strongest” organisms survive. 16.3

Cell structure and function

Eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells 7.1.

Structure, function and interrelatedness of cell organelles 7.2

Characteristics of life regulated by cellular processes 7.3

Photosynthesis, chemosynthesis, cellular respiration 8.1, 8.2, 8.3 (Factors Affecting Photosynthesis), 9.1, 9.3


17.1 — Introduction to inheritance

In the last chapter, we discussed object composition, where complex classes are constructed from simpler classes and types. Object composition is perfect for building new objects that have a “has-a” relationship with their parts. However, object composition is just one of the two major ways that C++ lets you construct complex classes. The second way is through inheritance, which models an “is-a” relationship between two objects.

Unlike object composition, which involves creating new objects by combining and connecting other objects, inheritance involves creating new objects by directly acquiring the attributes and behaviors of other objects and then extending or specializing them. Like object composition, inheritance is everywhere in real life. When you were conceived, you inherited your parents genes, and acquired physical attributes from both of them -- but then you added your own personality on top. Technological products (computers, cell phones, etc…) inherit features from their predecessors (often used for backwards compatibility). For example, the Intel Pentium processor inherited many of the features defined by the Intel 486 processor, which itself inherited features from earlier processors. C++ inherited many features from C, the language upon which it is based, and C inherited many of its features from the programming languages that came before it.

Consider apples and bananas. Although apples and bananas are different fruits, both have in common that they are fruits. And because apples and bananas are fruits, simple logic tells us that anything that is true of fruits is also true of apples and bananas. For example, all fruits have a name, a color, and a size. Therefore, apples and bananas also have a name, a color, and a size. We can say that apples and bananas inherit (acquire) these all of the properties of fruit because they are fruit. We also know that fruit undergoes a ripening process, by which it becomes edible. Because apples and bananas are fruit, we also know that apples and bananas will inherit the behavior of ripening.

Put into a diagram, the relationship between apples, bananas, and fruit might look something like this:

This diagram defines a hierarchy.

Hierarchies

A hierarchy is a diagram that shows how various objects are related. Most hierarchies either show a progression over time (386 -> 486 -> Pentium), or categorize things in a way that moves from general to specific (fruit -> apple -> red delicious). If you’ve ever taken biology, the famous domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species ordering defines a hierarchy (from general to specific).

Here’s another example of a hierarchy: a square is a rectangle, which is a quadrilateral, which is a shape. A right triangle is a triangle, which is also a shape. Put into a hierarchy diagram, that would look like this:

This diagram goes from general (top) to specific (bottom), with each item in the hierarchy inheriting the properties and behaviors of the item above it.

A look ahead

In this chapter, we’ll explore the basics of how inheritance works in C++.

Next chapter, we’ll explore how inheritance enables polymorphism (one of object-oriented programming’s big buzzwords) through virtual functions.

As we progress, we’ll also talk about inheritance’s key benefits, as well as some of the downsides.


Introduction - Biology bibliographies - in Harvard style

Your Bibliography: Maramorosch, K. and Jensen, D., 1963. Harmful and Beneficial Effects of Plant Viruses in Insects. Annual Review of Microbiology, 17(1), pp.495-530.

Roossinck, M. J.

A new look at plant viruses and their potential beneficial roles in crops

2015 - Molecular Plant Pathology

In-text: (Roossinck, 2015)

Your Bibliography: Roossinck, M., 2015. A new look at plant viruses and their potential beneficial roles in crops. Molecular Plant Pathology, 16(4), pp.331-333.

Takahashi, H., Fukuhara, T., Kitazawa, H. and Kormelink, R.

Virus Latency and the Impact on Plants

2019 - Frontiers in Microbiology

In-text: (Takahashi, Fukuhara, Kitazawa and Kormelink, 2019)

Your Bibliography: Takahashi, H., Fukuhara, T., Kitazawa, H. and Kormelink, R., 2019. Virus Latency and the Impact on Plants. Frontiers in Microbiology, 10.


17.1: Introduction - Biology

  • Concepts of Bio Chp 15
  • Class 2 Reading Questions
  • Danielson framework assessment
  • Comparing Fractions
  • Star Wars quiz
  • Check Your Understanding
  • Just a question
  • Civil War
  • MIT Sample Questions
  • Current Politics
  • Meeting Format and Dialogue Quiz #1
  • Meeting Format and Dialogue, Quiz #2
  • Concepts of Bio Chp 16
  • Concepts of Bio Chp 1
  • Concepts of Bio Chp 2
  • Concepts of Bio Chp 3
  • Concepts of Bio Chp 4
  • Concepts of Bio Chp 5
  • Concepts of Bio Chp 6
  • Concepts of Bio Chp 7
  • Concepts of Bio Chp 8
  • Personal_Publishing
  • Concepts of Bio Chp 9
  • Concepts of Bio Chp 10
  • Concepts of Bio Chp 11
  • Concepts of Bio Chp 12
  • Concepts of Bio Chp 13
  • Concepts of Bio Chp 14
  • Concepts of Bio Chp 17
  • Concepts of Bio Chp 18
  • Concepts of Bio Chp 19
  • Concepts of Bio Chp 20
  • Concepts of Bio Chp 21
  • objectives
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 2
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 3
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 4
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  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 26
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 27
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 28
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Chapter 1
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Chapter 2
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Chapter 3
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Chapter 4
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Chapter 5
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Chapter 6
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Chapter 7
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Chapter 8
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Chapter 9
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Chapter 10
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Chapter 11
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Chapter 12
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Chapter 13
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Chapter 14
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Chapter 15
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Chapter 16
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Chapter 17
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Chapter 18
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Chapter 19
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Chapter 20
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Chapter 21
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 1.1
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 1.2
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 1.3
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 1.4
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 1.5
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 1.6
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 1.7
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 2.1
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  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 2.3
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 2.4
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 3.1
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 3.3
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 3.5
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 4.5
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 4.6
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 5.2
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 5.3
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 5.4
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 6.3
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 6.5
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 7.2
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 7.3
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 7.4
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 8.1
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 8.4
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 9.2
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 9.6
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 10.1
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 10.4
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 10.7
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 10.9
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 11.3
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 11.4
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 11.5
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 12.2
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 12.3
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 12.5
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 13.4
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 15.2
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 16.2
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 16.3
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 17.3
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 17.4
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  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 17.8
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 18.2
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  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 20.4
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 21.3
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 21.4
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  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 22.6
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  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 24.7
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 25.10
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 25.2
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  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 25.6
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 2.5
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 3.4
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 4.2
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 4.3
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 6.7
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 7.1
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 8.2
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 9.5
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 9.7
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 10.2
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 10.5
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 10.6
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 10.8
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 11.1
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 11.2
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 13.1
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 13.2
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 14.1
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 14.2
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 14.3
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 15.1
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 15.3
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 15.4
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 16.4
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 17.10
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 17.2
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 17.6
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 17.7
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 18.1
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 18.3
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 18.5
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 18.6
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 19.1
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 19.2
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 19.4
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 19.5
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 20.1
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 20.2
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 20.5
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 21.1
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 22.2
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 22.5
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 22.7
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 23.4
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 23.6
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 23.7
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 25.3
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 26.1
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 3.2
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 3.6
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 4.1
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 4.4
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  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 6.1
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  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 6.4
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  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 7.5
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 8.3
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  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 9.1
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 9.3
  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 9.4
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  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 12.1
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  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 19.3
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  • OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology Section 28.7
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 1.1
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  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 17.3
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 19.3
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 20.1
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 20.2
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 20.3
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 21.1
  • The Account for a Merchandising Business
  • Income Statements for a Merchandising Business
  • Cost of Goods Sold
  • Journal Entires for Inventory Purchases and Sales
  • Computing Cash Discounts
  • FOB Shipping Point and Destination
  • The Americas
  • Europe on the Brink of Change
  • Portuguese Exploration and Spanish Conquest
  • Religious Upheavals in the Developing Atlantic World
  • Challenges to Spain’s Supremacy
  • This is a test assessment
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Theoretical Perspectives on Culture
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Types of Societies
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Theoretical Perspectives on Society
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Social Constructions of Reality
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Socialization Across the Life Course
  • American Government: The News Media
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Agents of Socialization
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: The History of Sociology
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Theoretical Perspectives
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Research Methods
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: What Is Culture?
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Pop Culture, Subculture, and Cultural Change
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Theories of Self-Development
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Types of Groups
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Deviance and Control
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Theoretical Perspectives on Deviance
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Technology Today
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Media and Technology in Society
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Theoretical Perspectives on Media and Technology
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: What Is Social Stratification?
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Social Stratification and Mobility in the United States
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Global Stratification and Inequality
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Theoretical Perspectives on Global Stratification
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Global Stratification and Classification
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 10.1
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 11.1
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 12.1
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 13.1
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 13.3
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 13.4
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 14.2
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 16.3
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 17.1
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 17.2
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 18.2
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 19.1
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 19.2
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 19.4
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 19.5
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 21.3
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Approaches to Sociological Research
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Challenges Facing the Elderly
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: What Is Sociology?
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Why Study Sociology?
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Ethical Concerns
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Elements of Culture
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Why Socialization Matters
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Group Size and Structure
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Formal Organizations
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Crime and the Law
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Global Implications of Media and Technology
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Global Wealth and Poverty
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Theories of Race and Ethnicity
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Intergroup Relationships
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Race and Ethnicity in the United States
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Sex and Gender
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Sex and Sexuality
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Who Are the Elderly? Aging in Society
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Theoretical Perspectives on Aging
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: What Is Marriage? What Is a Family?
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Variations in Family Life
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Challenges Families Face
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: The Sociological Approach to Religion
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: World Religions
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Religion in the United States
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Education around the World
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Issues in Education
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Forms of Government
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Politics in the United States
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Theoretical Perspectives on Government and Power
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Economic Systems
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Work in the United States
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: The Social Construction of Health
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 10.2
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 10.3
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 11.3
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 11.5
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 13.2
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 14.1
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 14.3
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 15.3
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 16.1
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 17.4
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 18.1
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 18.3
  • OpenStax Intro Sociology Section 21.2
  • Representing Fractions 2a
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Gender
  • NBA teams
  • Marketing Module 2.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 2.1
  • Histology Slides Review
  • Marketing Module 2.3
  • Intro to Business 1.1
  • test
  • Muscle Histology
  • Integumentary System Fact vs. Myth (OLI)
  • OpenStax Biology Section 2.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 2.3
  • Marketing Module 4.2
  • Marketing Module 1.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 3.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 3.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 3.3
  • Marketing Module 1.3
  • Marketing Module 1.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 3.4
  • levels_chem_atoms_lbd2
  • Marketing Module 2.1
  • Mkt Module 2.2
  • Marketing Module
  • Marketing Module 2.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 3.5
  • Marketing Module 4.2
  • Marketing Module 4.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 1.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 1.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 4.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 4.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 4.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 4.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 4.5
  • OpenStax Biology Section 4.6
  • OpenStax Biology Section 5.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 5.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 5.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 5.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 6.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 6.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 6.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 6.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 6.5
  • OpenStax Biology Section 7.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 7.5
  • OpenStax Biology Section 7.7
  • OpenStax Biology Section 8.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 10.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 10.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 10.5
  • OpenStax Biology Section 11.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 11.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 12.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 14.6
  • OpenStax Biology Section 15.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 15.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 16.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 16.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 16.7
  • OpenStax Biology Section 20.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 21.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 21.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 22.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 22.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 22.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 23.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 24.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 24.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 25.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 25.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 26.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 26.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 27.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 29.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 29.5
  • OpenStax Biology Section 29.6
  • OpenStax Biology Section 29.7
  • OpenStax Biology Section 30.6
  • OpenStax Biology Section 31.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 31.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 32.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 33.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 34.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 36.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 37.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 37.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 37.5
  • OpenStax Biology Section 38.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 39.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 40.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 40.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 41.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 41.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 41.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 43.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 43.5
  • OpenStax Biology Section 43.6
  • OpenStax Biology Section 44.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 44.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 44.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 45.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 45.7
  • OpenStax Biology Section 47.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 47.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 47.4
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 1.1
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 2.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 7.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 7.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 8.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 8.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 9.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 9.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 10.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 10.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 12.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 13.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 15.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 15.5
  • OpenStax Biology Section 16.5
  • OpenStax Biology Section 16.6
  • OpenStax Biology Section 17.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 17.5
  • OpenStax Biology Section 18.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 18.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 19.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 22.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 23.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 23.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 25.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 26.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 27.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 28.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 28.5
  • OpenStax Biology Section 29.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 29.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 30.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 30.5
  • OpenStax Biology Section 32.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 34.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 35.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 35.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 35.5
  • OpenStax Biology Section 36.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 36.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 37.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 37.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 39.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 39.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 39.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 40.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 42.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 42.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 42.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 43.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 44.5
  • OpenStax Biology Section 45.5
  • OpenStax Biology Section 46.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 46.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 46.3
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 2.3
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 3.1
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 3.6
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 4.3
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 4.4
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 4.5
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 6.2
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 7.2
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 8.2
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 9.1
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 9.3
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 9.5
  • OpenStax Biology Section 7.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 7.6
  • OpenStax Biology Section 9.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 9.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 12.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 13.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 14.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 14.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 14.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 14.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 14.5
  • OpenStax Biology Section 15.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 16.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 16.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 17.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 17.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 17.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 18.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 19.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 19.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 20.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 20.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 21.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 21.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 22.5
  • OpenStax Biology Section 23.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 24.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 24.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 24.5
  • OpenStax Biology Section 25.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 26.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 27.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 27.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 28.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 28.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 28.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 29.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 30.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 30.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 30.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 31.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 32.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 33.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 33.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 34.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 34.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 35.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 35.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 36.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 36.5
  • OpenStax Biology Section 38.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 38.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 38.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 40.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 41.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 41.5
  • OpenStax Biology Section 42.1
  • OpenStax Biology Section 43.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 43.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 43.7
  • OpenStax Biology Section 44.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 45.2
  • OpenStax Biology Section 45.3
  • OpenStax Biology Section 45.4
  • OpenStax Biology Section 45.6
  • Cash Flows
  • OpenStax Biology Section 47.3
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 1.2
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 3.3
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 3.4
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 5.1
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 5.2
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 6.3
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 6.4
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 7.1
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 7.3
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 8.1
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 9.2
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 9.4
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 10.3
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 11.1
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 11.2
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 11.4
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 11.5
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 13.1
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 13.2
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 13.4
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 14.4
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 15.1
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 15.4
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 15.5
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 15.6
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 16.5
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 18.3
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 19.2
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 20.3
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: The Process of Aging
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Theoretical Perspectives on Education
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Power and Authority
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Globalization and the Economy
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Global Health
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Health in the United States
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Collective Behavior
  • Bonds: Investing in Bonds
  • Cash Flows: Operating
  • Cash Flows: Full Statement
  • Nonverbal Communication Self Check
  • Perception Self Check
  • Persuasion Self Check
  • Rhetorical Communication Self Check
  • Small Group Self Check
  • Verbal Communication Self Check
  • Waymaker Student Training
  • Waymaker Student Training
  • Sample Assessment
  • S1L4_2Func.2_p01eMC
  • Find the Median
  • CS Personal Identity
  • XQuestionSample
  • Canvas Simple Test
  • Just another matching question
  • multi thing
  • sdfjoh dsdfsa
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 2.2
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 3.2
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 3.5
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 4.1
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 4.2
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 5.3
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 6.1
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 8.3
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 10.1
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 11.3
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 12.1
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 12.2
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 14.3
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 15.2
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 16.1
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 16.6
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 17.2
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 17.4
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 18.2
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 19.3
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 19.4
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 20.2
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 20.4
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 21.1
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 21.3
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Comparative Health and Medicine
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Theoretical Perspectives on Health and Medicine
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: The Environment and Society
  • FS Analysis: Horizontal
  • FS Analysis: Ratios 3
  • Accounting: AccountType
  • Accounting Equation
  • Merchandising: Buyer - Periodic
  • Accounting Cycle: Terms
  • Accounting Cycle: DR CR
  • Accounting Cycle: Journal Entries
  • Accounting Cycle: Posting
  • Accounting Cycle: Cash vs Accrual
  • Accounting Cycle: Adj Entries
  • Accounting Cycle: Accruals
  • Accounting Cycle: Deferrals
  • Accounting Cycle: Adj Trial Bal
  • Accounting Cycle: Fin Stmts
  • Accounting Cycle: Closing Entries
  • Merchandising
  • Merchandising Seller - Periodic
  • Merchandising: Adjusting
  • Special Journals
  • Cash: Petty Cash
  • Inventory: COGS perpetual
  • Contemporary Psychology
  • Parts of the Nervous System (OpenStax Psychology)
  • The Brain and Spinal Cord (OpenStax Psychology)
  • Test - Spanish w audio 3
  • Test - Spanish SA
  • Lección 1 Funciones comunicativas: saludos
  • Lección 1 Funciones comunicativas: despedidas
  • Lección 1 Funciones comunicativas: Identificar personas y cosas
  • Lección 1 Vocabulario: Descripciones
  • Lección 1 Vocabulario: Descripciones 2
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 10.2
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 13.3
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 14.1
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 14.2
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 15.3
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 16.2
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 16.3
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 16.4
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 17.1
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 17.3
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 18.1
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 19.1
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 20.1
  • OpenStax Concepts of Biology Section 21.2
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Demography and Population
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Urbanization
  • Introduction to the Nervous System
  • The Brain
  • The Spinal Cord
  • Neurophysiology
  • Synapses
  • Autonomic Nervous System
  • Homeostasis Terminology
  • Homeostasis and Feedback Loops
  • Feedback Loops
  • Homeostatic Maintenance
  • Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2
  • Integration of Systems
  • Chemistry for OLI AnP
  • Feedback Loops
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Social Movements
  • Macromolecules
  • OpenStax Sociology 2: Social Change
  • test2
  • The Cell
  • Higher Order Structures
  • FS Analysis: Trend
  • Merchandising: Inventory
  • Merchandising: Buyer - Perpetual
  • Merchandising: Seller - Perpetual
  • Skeletal Structures and Functions
  • Merchandising: Financials
  • Axial Skeleton Anatomy
  • Appendicular Skeleton Anatomy
  • Articulations: Synarthrosis, Amphiarthrosis, and Diarthrosis
  • Merchandising: Closing
  • Cash: Bank Reconciliation
  • Inventory: COGS periodic
  • Integration of Systems
  • Pain
  • Reflexes
  • Special Senses: Vision
  • Special Senses: Taste (Gustation)
  • Special Senses: Smell (Olfaction)
  • Homeostatic Maintenance
  • Muscular Homeostasis Quiz
  • Introduction to the Muscular System Fact vs. Myth
  • Parts of the Nervous System (OpenStax Psychology)
  • Contemporary Psychology (OpenStax Psychology)
  • Just another matching question2
  • Atoms and Bonding Quiz
  • Molecules Quiz (OpenStax)
  • Amino Acids Quiz
  • Membranes Quiz
  • Membrane Transport Quiz
  • Integumentary System Quiz
  • Integumentary Structures and Functions Quiz
  • Integumentary Levels of Organization Quiz
  • Organ Level---Skin Quiz
  • Hair and Nails Quiz
  • Skeletal Levels of Organization Quiz
  • Macroscopic Structures of the Skeletal System
  • Bones-Classification by Microscopic Structure
  • Muscular Levels of Organization Quiz
  • Neuromuscular Junctions
  • Muscle Structures and Functions Quiz
  • Muscle Movement and Gross Anatomy Quiz
  • Meiosis - A&P
  • OpenStax Psychology: What Is Psychology?
  • Sociology 1.3 - The History of Sociology
  • OpenStax Psychology: History of Psychology
  • Alexis's Sample Assessment
  • OpenStax Psychology: Contemporary Psychology
  • OpenStax Psychology: Careers in Psychology
  • OpenStax Psychology: Why Is Research Important?
  • OpenStax Psychology: Approaches to Research
  • OpenStax Psychology: Analyzing Findings
  • OpenStax Psychology: Ethics
  • OpenStax Psychology: Human Genetics
  • OpenStax Psychology: Cells of the Nervous System
  • OpenStax Psychology: Parts of the Nervous System
  • OpenStax Psychology: The Brain and Spinal Cord
  • OpenStax Psychology: The Endocrine System
  • OpenStax Psychology: What Is Consciousness?
  • OpenStax Psychology: Sleep and Why We Sleep
  • OpenStax Psychology: Stages of Sleep
  • OpenStax Psychology: Sleep Problems and Disorders
  • OpenStax Psychology: Substance Use and Abuse
  • OpenStax Psychology: Other States of Consciousness
  • OpenStax Psychology: Sensation versus Perception
  • OpenStax Psychology: Waves and Wavelengths
  • OpenStax Psychology: Vision
  • OpenStax Psychology: Hearing
  • OpenStax Psychology: The Other Senses
  • OpenStax Psychology: Gestalt Principles of Perception
  • OpenStax Psychology: What Is Learning?
  • OpenStax Psychology: Classical Conditioning
  • OpenStax Psychology: Operant Conditioning
  • OpenStax Psychology: Observational Learning (Modeling)
  • OpenStax Psychology: What Is Cognition?
  • OpenStax Psychology: Language
  • OpenStax Psychology: Problem Solving
  • OpenStax Psychology: What Are Intelligence and Creativity?
  • OpenStax Psychology: Measures of Intelligence
  • OpenStax Psychology: The Source of Intelligence
  • OpenStax Psychology: Parts of the Brain Involved with Memory
  • OpenStax Psychology: Emotion
  • OpenStax Psychology: What Is Personality?
  • OpenStax Psychology: Learning Approaches
  • OpenStax Psychology: Biological Approaches
  • OpenStax Psychology: Trait Theorists
  • OpenStax Psychology: Personality Assessment
  • OpenStax Psychology: What Is Social Psychology?
  • OpenStax Psychology: What Is Industrial and Organizational Psychology?
  • OpenStax Psychology: Stress and Illness
  • OpenStax Psychology: The Pursuit of Happiness
  • OpenStax Psychology: Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
  • OpenStax Psychology: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
  • OpenStax Psychology: Mood Disorders
  • OpenStax Psychology: Schizophrenia
  • OpenStax Psychology: Dissociative Disorders
  • OpenStax Psychology: Disorders in Childhood
  • OpenStax Psychology: Mental Health Treatment: Past and Present
  • OpenStax Psychology: Treatment Modalities
  • OpenStax Psychology: Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders: A Special Case
  • FS Analysis: Vertical
  • FS Analysis: Ratios 1
  • FS Analysis: Ratios 2
  • Lección 1: Vocabulario EJERCICIOS DE REPASO
  • OpenStax Psychology: Motivation
  • OpenStax Psychology: Personality Disorders
  • OpenStax Psychology: History of Psychology
  • OpenStax Psychology: Observational Learning (Modeling)
  • OpenStax Psychology: Hunger and Eating
  • OpenStax Psychology: Motivation
  • OpenStax Psychology: What Is Psychology?
  • OpenStax Psychology: Analyzing Findings
  • OpenStax Psychology: Aggression
  • OpenStax Psychology: Prosocial Behavior
  • OpenStax Psychology: Approaches to Research
  • OpenStax Psychology: Classical Conditioning
  • OpenStax Psychology: Why Is Research Important?
  • OpenStax Psychology: Human Factors Psychology and Workplace Design
  • OpenStax Psychology: Schizophrenia
  • OpenStax Psychology: Self-presentation
  • OpenStax Psychology: What Is Social Psychology?
  • OpenStax Psychology: How Memory Functions
  • OpenStax Psychology: Emotion
  • OpenStax Psychology: What Is Stress?
  • OpenStax Psychology: Attitudes and Persuasion
  • OpenStax Psychology: Ethics
  • OpenStax Psychology: Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
  • OpenStax Psychology: Mood Disorders
  • OpenStax Psychology: How Memory Functions
  • OpenStax Psychology: Ways to Enhance Memory
  • OpenStax Psychology: What Is Lifespan Development?
  • OpenStax Psychology: Lifespan Theories
  • OpenStax Psychology: Death and Dying
  • OpenStax Psychology: Motivation
  • OpenStax Psychology: Hunger and Eating
  • OpenStax Psychology: Sexual Behavior
  • OpenStax Psychology: Humanistic Approaches
  • OpenStax Psychology: Cultural Understandings of Personality
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  • An Empire of Slavery and the Consumer Revolution
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Chapter One - An Introduction to the Biology of Northern Krill (Meganyctiphanes norvegica Sars)

This chapter provides a background to research on Northern krill biology, starting with a description of its morphology and identifying features, and the historical path to its eventual position as a single-species genus. There is a lack of any euphausiid fossil material, so phylogenetic analysis has relied on comparative morphology and ontogeny and, more recently, genetic methods. Although details differ, the consensus of these approaches is that Meganyctiphanes is most closely related to the genus Thysanoessa. The light organs (or photophores) are well developed in Northern krill and the control of luminescence in these organs is described. A consideration of the distribution of the species shows that it principally occupies shelf and slope waters of both the western and eastern coasts of the North Atlantic, with a southern limit at the boundary with sub-tropical waters (plus parts of the Mediterranean) and a northern limit at the boundary with Arctic water masses. Recent evidence of a northward expansion of these distributional limits is considered further. There have been a variety of techniques used to sample and survey Northern krill populations for a variety of purposes, which this chapter collates and assesses in terms of their effectiveness. Northern krill play an important ecological role, both as a contributor to the carbon pump through the transport of faecal material to the deeper layers, and as a key prey item for groundfish, squid, baleen whales, and seabirds. The commercial exploitation of Northern krill has been slow to emerge since its potential was considered by Mauchline [Mauchline, J (1980). The biology of mysids and euphausiids. Adv. Mar. Biol. 18, 1–681]. However, new uses for products derived from krill are currently being found, which may lead to a new wave of exploitation.


Barn Owl Biology

Name: Barn Owl – Tyto alba
Other Common Names: Monkey-faced Owl Ghost Owl Golden Owl.

Subspecies: There are as many as 46 races of Common Barn owl recognized across the world. There is only one race recognized in North America. As many as 5 more are described from Central America (1 in the Bahamas, 1 in Cuba, 1 from the Isle of Pines, 1 from Hispanola, and 1 from Guatemala south to the Panama Canal). The ranges of these are not well defined and also need review so are not listed here. T. a. pratincola is found in S. W. British Columbia south and east through most of the U. S. (except some of the northern-central states) and Mexico. This is the largest race (physical size) of Barn Owl in the world.

Measurements and Weights:
Wingspan: 43 – 47 in.
Length: 14 – 20 in.
Tail: 5 – 6 in.
Average Weight: Male: 15 3/4 oz.
Average Weight: Female: 17 1/2 oz.

Description: The Barn Owl is North America’s only member of the family Tytonidae (all other owls are from the Strigidae family) sometimes called the monkey-faced owl family. This is a medium sized owl that lacks ear tufts. Unlike all other owls it has a distinctive heart shaped facial disk. It also has relatively long legs (the only other owl with long legs is the Burrowing Owl). This is primarily a nocturnal owl although it has relatively small eyes in comparison to the other owls. The females tend to be slightly darker overall than the males. White facial disk with brown to orange-brown border. It has dark eyes and an ivory colored bill. The under parts are white with a light pale orange or yellow wash with small gray to brown dots. The upper parts are a pale orange or yellow with a mix of light to dark gray also with small dots.

Young: After the loss of their initial hatchling down, the juveniles are identical to the adults except for possibly more heavily spotted.


Watch the video: STAT115 Chapter SNP, LP, and Association Studies. (July 2022).


Comments:

  1. Ken'ichi

    On the Shoulders Down! Street tablecloths! So much the better!

  2. Duston

    the Exclusive deliberation

  3. Mudawar

    In doing so, I have no doubt.

  4. Tianna

    I'm sorry, but I think you are wrong. I'm sure.



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