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Was just contemplating this.
Juices tend to contain a lot of sugar.
- Does the body absorb all the sugar in juices?
- If the body does not, that sugar must be excreted by the kidneys alongside water thereby causing a diuresis, right?
NB I realise even if there is a diuretic effect that is outweighed by the large proportion of water in juices. But my question is whether there still is a small diuretic effect
In short: Drinking fruit juice by a healthy person with a normal kidney function do not likely have any significant diuretic effect.
Even if you drink, let's say, 2 liters of 10% fruit juice within 30 minutes, it would likely take about 2 hours for all the juice to be emptied from the stomach into the intestine and absorbed into the blood. Sugar delivered from the intestine will gradually increase blood glucose, but this will be balanced by the glucose taken from the blood by the cells, so, the blood glucose will not likely exceed 11 mmol/L, when glucose can start to move from the blood into the urine and cause diuresis.
I can back up this by the glucose tolerance test in which you drink 1 cup (237 mL) of a drink with ~35% glucose (>3 times as much as in a usual fruit juice). 2 hours after the test, the glucose levels in a healthy person (without diabetes mellitus) will be lower than 7.8 mmol/L, so below the diuretic level (11 mmol/L).
AP Biology Unit 1: Endocrine system
They send important information from one set of cells to another.
Exocrine - pancreatic juice — into the gastrointestinal tract through a series of ducts
2. Influence almost every cell and organ in the body.
Function - 1.Synchronize the information from
the brain and the secretions of hormones.
Considered the most important part of the endocrine system and is often called the "master gland".
2.Control body and tissue growth.
2. Secretes a hormone called thyroxine.
3. Thyroxine regulates the metabolic rates of almost all the cells in the body
4. As the thyroxine levels in the blood increase so does the rate of cellular respiration
Secretes thymosin which stimulates T cell (that is
a type of white blood cell) production in children.
2.Medulla secretes epinephrine (adrenaline)
and nor epinephrine which regulate our fight or flight response at times of extreme stress
3.Cortex secretes aldosterone which regulates reabsorption of nutrients from the kidney
Secretes insulin which tells the liver and muscles to remove sugar from the blood and store it as fat
For colds – garlic, raspberry juice, radish
Garlic is best for colds. It contains antimicrobial (antibiotic-like) volatile substances that are released when you chop or grind fresh garlic cloves. Three minutes is enough for the garlic juice to destroy the colony of bacteria. It is also worth having raspberry or blackcurrant juice in the pantry – it will warm you up and help reduce the fever. Horseradish and radish can also be helpful in treating colds. They act as an expectorant, dissolving excess phlegm and mucus, and they also cleanse the nose and sinuses.
Best Raw Vegetable Juices
The following list is certainly not exhaustive, and it is not claiming to provide medical advice. The intent is to illustrate the wide spectrum of beneficial nutrients believed to be available in vegetables and vegetable juices.
Arugula is considered one of the most anti-cancer foods
Asparagus is a super food, good diuretic, helps regulate blood sugar levels, and contains folic acid
Beets, also called beetroot, helps to cleanse the blood and support the liver
Bell peppers contains chromium and lots of phytochemicals with good antioxidant value
Broccoli is high in vitamin C, vitamin K, beta-carotene, and promotes health vision
Cabbage – both red cabbage and green – coat and help protect the colon and digestive system
Carrots contain high amounts of vitamin A, chromium, carotene which prevents free-radical damage to the body
Celery helps cleanse uric acid from digestive system, and is very alkalizing
Chard (aka Swiss chard or silver beet) is high in vitamin A, potassium, and manganese
Collard greens provide calcium and protect against colon diseases
Cucumbers are a natural diuretic and are a good source of silicon, which is good for skin and hair
Parsnips contain chromium, which regulates metabolism
Parsley has high levels of chlorophyll, fights parasites, and cleanses the liver
Radishes are known for opening up the sinuses
Rutabagas help increase stamina
Spinach is high in vitamins A and K, as well as folic acid
Sweet potatoes are a good source of vitamin A and beta-carotene, and help with arthritis and other types of inflammation
Tomatoes contain lycopene, which is a strong antioxidant
Turnip greens have vitamin K, calcium, and zinc, which is associated with lower body fat levels
Turnip is traditionally used as a remedy to strengthen lung tissue
All rich green vegetables contain some chlorophyll. (Do you remember that term from high school Biology??). This can help clean our elimination systems, which can then clean our blood and lymph systems. Chlorophyll can have other positive effects on our bodies as it helps to improve our circulation, relieve inflammatory pain, destroy bacteria and purify our livers.
Because chlorophyll, via green juices, is such a powerful benefactor to our bodies, you should strive to get some green juicing in on a regular basis. Starting out with greens combined with other juices (fruits, milder vegetables) may make it more palatable for you if you are a beginning juicer.
The nice thing about juicing is that by combining fruits and vegetables that contain specific nutrients, you can target certain concerns, like inflammation, urinary tract infections, or high blood pressure, while getting in the amount of nutrition from vegetables that you are not likely getting today.
Unless you are dealing with a specific medical problem, and are seeking a remedy through juicing and/or raw foods, enjoying a wide variety of these foods through juicing could provide you with vitality and natural protection from serious illness. My own personal testimony of improved symptoms of autoimmune disease is enough to make a believer out of me.
Tomorrow we’ll take a look at some of the specific healing properties of many vegatables!
Lemon and watermelon juice
This fluid-filled lemon and watermelon juice is great in the mid-afternoon with some ice. It’s refreshing, high in antioxidants, and a powerful diuretic.
- contains more water than just about any other fruit. It’s very low in calories and its lycopene content helps strengthen the connections between your nerve cells.
- Combining watermelon and lemon in a juice hydrates your body and improves circulation. It also helps get rid of toxins thanks to the diuretic properties of these two fruits.
- This juice is extremely easy to make, you can do it in seconds. Simply add the diced watermelon, lemon juice, and water to your blender.
- Process until smooth and you’ll have a refreshing beverage for a warm afternoon. If you find the flavor a bit too bitter, sweeten it with some honey.
Some natural foods contain diuretics that help to reduce edema. Most of these natural diuretic foods have high water content and they usually aid in the removal of excess fluids that build up in the body to cause swelling.
The following foods may naturally reduce edema.
Watermelon has a very high water content of about 92%. It contains antioxidant flavonoids such as lutein, lycopene, beta-carotene, zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthin. The phytochemicals present in watermelons like lycopene and carotenoids can protect cells, tissues, and proteins in the body from harmful free radicals.
Also, citrulline an amino acid found in watermelon can relax blood vessels, an ability that can prevent fluids leaking out of those vessels and collecting in the surrounding tissues.
Overall, watermelon is cleansing, diuretic, alkalinizing, and mineralizing. It also helps in promoting intestinal elimination and removal of toxic wastes from the body.
Dr. Ariel Policano, a naturopathic physician, stated that watermelon helps the liver to process ammonia, which is a toxic nitrogen waste product, by changing it into urea which is safely excreted.
Therefore, watermelon is not only a diuretic but a detoxifier.
Naturally, tomatoes have about 90% water content. They also contain antioxidants such as lycopene, beta-carotene, vitamin C, and selenium.
These antioxidants prevent the damages caused by free radicals to body tissues leading to premature aging and many chronic degenerative diseases. When these free radicals damage the walls of the blood vessels, they can cause the leakage of fluids and therefore, local swelling.
They have low calories and low cholesterol making them unique for people watching their weights.
Cucumber contains a high water content which makes it a good choice as a natural diuretic.
It is also known to contain a high amount of silicon and sulfur.
Silicon and sulfur induce the kidneys' the elimination of uric acids. This contributes to an efficient system of waste removal from the body and relief from being overstuffed and bloated.
Its action of uric acid removal makes it good for arthritis relief too.
Caffeic and ascorbic acid are also present in cucumber and they can contribute to its diuretic effect. Swelling around the eyes can also be treated with cucumber.
Cucumber is a good example of a potassium-sparing diuretic because it is also rich in potassium.
Cucumbers contain antioxidants such as beta-carotene and alpha-carotene, vitamins A and C, zeaxanthin, and lutein, all of which reduce the effects of aging.
Cranberry juice is traditionally used to treat urinary tract infections. This is mainly because of its antibacterial and diuretic properties. One notable benefit of the diuretic effect of cranberry is that it does not drain the body of potassium.
Some of the phytochemicals present in cranberry include catechins, triterpenoids, quinic acid, hippuric acid, anthocyanins.
In a study presented in 2002, at the Experimental Biology conference, the researchers showed that an 8 oz. serving of cranberry juice was enough to prevent the bacteria, E. coli, from sticking to the bladder cells and for treating bladder infections.
A study published in 2002 in the Journal of the American Medical Association showed that cranberry PACs were able to stop the linkage of both resistant strains and antibiotic susceptible bacteria.
Carrots are widely regarded as one of the most effective diuretic vegetables. This is because of the vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants they contain. Some of the phytochemicals in carrots are lutein, lycopene, carotenes, zeaxanthin, and xanthophyll.
These phytochemicals can promote detoxification and increase the rate of metabolism and in the process, discharge vitamins and minerals. Part of the detoxification achieved by these phytochemicals in carrot is done through diuresis.
Also, the alkaline elements richly present in carrots can invigorate the blood and promote the right pH balance in the body.
There is sufficient evidence that suggests the diuretic importance of eggplant. Its high water content is an obvious example.
Eggplant improves the circulation of blood and reduces toxic heat. Its diuretic properties make it useful in the treatment of hypertension and edema.
The major phytochemicals found in eggplants are flavonoids. They are also loaded with other antioxidants, fiber, minerals, and vitamins.
Drinking eggplant water reduces bloating caused by high water and fluid being held up in the body. They are also recommended as weight loss foods for people who want to get rid of the band of fat found around the waist.
Artichoke is an excellent diuretic food. This vegetable is especially known to improve kidney function.
Some of the phytochemicals found in artichoke are caffeic acid, cynarin, and flavonoids. They are also a rich source of several nutrients, vitamins, and minerals that help to drive normal bodily functions.
The overall antioxidant capacity of artichoke flower heads is one of the highest for vegetables.
The cynarin contained in artichoke improves the flow of bile which reduces the number of excess fluids and consequently reduces swelling.
Artichokes should be eaten in raw form because heat destroys the cynarin contained in the artichoke.
Herbs made of a leaf extract from artichokes have been used to improve bile release and for various liver problems.
Celery seed speeds up uric acid excretion and increases the rate of urine production. These are how celery detoxifies the body.
When excess uric acid crystals collect in the joint, as in the case of gout, celery seeds can be particularly helpful. Therefore, celery is especially recommended for treating gout edema.
However, celery contains more sodium than most other vegetables. Fortunately, the sodium is counterbalanced by the high potassium it contains. Studies have revealed that the quantity of sodium in celery is not considered even for salt-susceptible individuals.
The major phytochemicals present in celery are coumarins. Studies reveal that coumarin compounds decrease blood pressure and improve the vascular system.
Celery is recommended for treating bladder disorders, cystitis, and other kidney problems because of its diuretic actions.
The grape has high water content and it is also rich in potassium. Both of these properties make it an effective and unique diuretic food.
Phytochemicals found in grapes include phenolic acids, flavonols, flavon-3-ols, myricetin, peonidin, flavonoids, resveratrol, and anthocyanins.
Due to their rich source of potassium and low level of salt, grapes can remove toxins from the body through increased urine flow, and for this reason, it is traditionally used for treating kidney disorders.
Due to the fiber in the skin and seeds, the grape has a cleansing effect. Grapes also help in the stimulation of liver functions and also bile secretion.
Asparagus packs low calories and contains a lot of vitamins and minerals such as folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin B, and vitamin C. Glutathione, a phytochemical found in asparagus acts as an oxidant and has anti-carcinogenic properties.
Asparagine, an amino acid found in asparagus, is an efficient diuretic and has been known to treat swelling, arthritis, rheumatism, and PMS-related water retention.
The fiber in asparagus helps in cleaning out our gastrointestinal tract.
5. Castor Oil
Castor oil, made from castor beans, is a well-known natural laxative. It lubricates your bowels without absorbing any moisture from the small intestinal walls. This aids easy elimination and prevents constipation.
However, castor oil should be used in moderation as its overuse can damage the bowel muscles, nerves and tissues.
- Mix 1 teaspoon of cold-pressed castor oil in a cup of orange or cranberry juice. For small children, use ½ teaspoon.
- Drink it on an empty stomach.
Note: Pregnant, breastfeeding and menstruating women should not use castor oil. Moreover, never take castor oil without consulting your doctor first, as it may interact with certain medications.
Natural Diuretic Foods
The best natural diuretic foods include dandelion, green and black tea, watermelon, celery, juniper, parsley, asparagus, garlic, hibiscus, leafy greens, and onions, among others.
The active ingredients in dandelion greens are able to increase kidney activity and stimulate urination, helping to eliminate excess toxins.
This powerful herb shares some active ingredients with prescription diuretic medication, but will not result in the same negative side effects or dehydration . 
To reduce bloating in the body and soothe edema, have a glass of water mixed with lemon juice! 
Green and Black Tea
Caffeinated beverages, including various types of tea, are able to stimulate urination and increase the rate of kidney elimination.
This herbal plant is known to reduce the retention of water and edema in the body by sending that excess fluid to the bladder for elimination.
Making ginger tea is an excellent way to detoxify the body, by stimulating urination and improving overall health with its antioxidants .
Alcohol consumption works as a great diuretic by increasing the urine output, although it can also have adverse effects on your health, so moderation is advised.
Rich in antioxidants, this fruit is known to be an amazing diuretic that helps in eliminating excess liquids and salt from the body.
This diuretic helps in reducing weight and also helps in improving digestion because of its great mineral and vitamin content.
Garlic, being a detoxifier , is a great diuretic that can also be taken in a pill form as a supplement. Although consumption of raw garlic is advised.
The presence of lecithin in chocolate is what makes it such an effective diuretic.
Able to reduce inflammation in the urinary tract, this herb can also boost urine volume.
Aside from unique digestive enzymes, pineapples are also high in natural fluids and are known to stimulate urination.
Cherries are extremely high in water volume and are also stimulating in nature, which can encourage urination.
This fruit is highly alkaline in nature, which can drive more sodium into the kidneys, and thus stimulate urination.
This powerful vegetable is known to eliminate toxins in the body and boost urine volume.
Able to lower blood pressure and contributing valuable antioxidants, beets are excellent natural diuretics. 
High in potassium, leafy greens can balance blood pressure and drive additional liquids into the excretory system.
Known to be somewhat diuretic in nature, pumpkin is also high in zinc and B vitamins.
These beans can lower blood sugar, which reduces the effects of diabetes, which can cause water retention throughout the body.
If you are suffering from edema, the unique nutrient composition of seaweed can help draw out that excess water. 
With a high level of water and the ability to dissolve uric acid, this vegetable is commonly used as a natural diuretic.
The stimulating effects of caffeine can help to encourage more urination.
Effects of Regular and Consequent Citrus Fruits Consumption on Vascular Protection (AGRUVASC)
Epidemiological studies definitively show that fruit and vegetable consumption is positive for health and more specifically for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) prevention. In France, among fruits, those which are the most frequently consumed are citrus fruits essentially as juices and more specifically as orange juices. However, their health effects have been poorly studied so far. Citrus fruits contain vitamin C associated with various phytomicronutrients i.e. carotenoids (essentially -cryptoxanthin) and polyphenols. Each fruit contains specific compounds: hesperetin in orange, naringenin in grapefruit, eriodyctiol in lemon. Some scientific studies performed either in vitro or in animal models demonstrated properties of these micronutrients which could contribute to a positive health effect of citrus fruits on vascular protection. However data are still missing.
The main goal of this project is to characterize the effect of orange juice consumption on vascular disease risk factors and to evaluate the specific role of their micronutrient compounds (polyphenols and carotenoids) in this protection. To reach this goal, a randomized "cross-over" clinical study will be performed on volunteers presenting a mild hypercholesterolemia. They will consume for 4 weeks an orange juice or a reconstituted drink similar to the orange juice for its composition in carbohydrates, minerals, vitamin C and folates but without phytomicronutrients. The effect of the juice consumption on the vascular function will be monitored exploring lipid abnormalities in plasma, measuring endothelial vasoreactivity (FMD) (Flow Mediated Dilatation), as well as endothelial dysfunction, thrombosis, inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers in plasma. Comparison of urinary metabolomes after orange juice consumption or that of the reconstituted drink will lead to the identification of the metabolic pathways modulated by the orange juice micronutrients.
Moreover ELISA tests for the two major flavanones from citrus fruits (hesperetin and naringenin) will be developed. They will be used to determine the plasma levels of these molecules in order to analyze the relation "ingested quantity - bioavailable quantity - physiological effect".
The results obtained in this project will allow clarifying citrus fruit effects, and particularly orange juice, in vascular protection.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors||Behavioral: Regular orange juice consumption||Not Applicable|
Arteriosclerosis is a chronic pathogenic inflammatory-fibro-proliferative process of large and medium-sized arteries that results in the progressive formation of fibrous plaques which in turn, impair the blood flow in vessels. These lesions can either promote an occlusive thrombosis in the affected artery (heart attack, thrombotic stroke) or produce a gradual but relentless stenosis of the arterial lumen. A number of subtle dysfunctions occur at the cellular and molecular levels in the early stages of disease progression associated with the loss of cellular homeostatic functions of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and macrophages which constitute the major cell types in the atheroma environment.
Several epidemiological studies shown a negative association between consumption of polyphenol-rich foods (fruits and vegetables) and CVD. This association has been partially explained by the fact that polyphenols interrupt lipid peroxidation which is implicated in the initiation of arteriosclerosis. Polyphenols contribution to the prevention of CVD could be attributable to their antioxidant capacity, hypolipidemic and/or anti-inflammatory properties as well as on their effects on metabolic pathways. Among fruits, citrus fruits are interesting sources of polyphenols (flavanones as glycosides) and carotenoids. A single glass of orange juice may contain between 40 and 140 mg flavanones, which may significantly contribute to the total daily polyphenol intake for the high citrus consumers. The clinical evidence of a role of citrus fruit consumption in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases concerns their hypocholesterolemic effect and the improvement of some biomarkers of oxidative stress, but the specific protective role of the phytomicronutrient provided by these beverages has never been considered. According to the type of citrus, the flavanone molecules are different: hesperetin in orange and clementine, naringenin in grapefruit and eriodyctiol in lemon. These molecules were shown to display antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects. Citrus also contains various carotenoids, like violaxanthin, lutein etc… as well as cryptoxanthin which acts as pro-vitamin A and has a positive role in CVD prevention. The specific health benefits brought by these phytomicronutrients are unknown and a clinical study with specific design to assess the contribution of citrus micronutrients has not been performed yet. Moreover, polyphenols and carotenoids are able to affect the expression of genes involved in atherogenesis. The interaction between these molecules on cellular responses is of particular interest. In fact, they could interplay in the cellular antioxidant network or directly (synergistically or antagonistically) affect gene expression. The unravellings of the mechanisms of regulation of transcriptional control of gene expression seems a promising future line of investigation. Newly developed high throughput technologies make a significant contribution to integrative biology. Studies on phytomicronutrients using the analysis of functional genomics and analysis of phenotypes by metabolic are still in its infancy. Integrated databases are necessary to understand their biological functions. The translation of basic scientific discoveries into applied nutrition is an increasing challenge.
Social and economic context:
CVD in adults are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries. In France, CVD are responsible for about 170 000 deaths a year i.e. 32% of all deaths, representing a total public heath expenditure estimated to 7.9%. As epidemiological studies show a protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption towards CVD incidence, the National Programme for Nutrition and Health set up in France advices at least a 400g consumption of fruits and vegetable per day, equivalent to 5 items of crude or cooked fruits or vegetables. The present project will give a solid background for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects of polyphenols on human health.
Scientifics and socio-economics goals:
Scientific goals are to clearly establish the effects of phytomicronutrient consumption through orange juice on vascular risk factors. This orange juice intake will take place into a French traditional controlled diet. This means that the project deals with nutritional prevention of one of the major cause of death and health costs in France. It involves one of the most popular sources of citrus fruits. This goal will be reached through an interventional clinical study. The final aim of the present project is to give and diffuse nutritional advices on citrus fruits consumption towards consumers, and to make fruit juices producers aware of the interest to optimize the content of their juices in phytomicronutrients.
Originality and new concepts:
Primary originality of the present project is to focus on the specific contribution of the phyto-micronutrients fraction of citrus (polyphenols and carotenoids) within their natural food matrix to the cardiovascular protection. Such an approach is elicited by conducting a cross over randomized study including in its experimental design a regular intake of orange juice compared to the consumption of a beverage mimicking the composition of orange juice. This control beverage will contain the main nutrients of orange juice (carbohydrates, Vit C, Mg++, K+, folates) except polyphenols and carotenoids. It is now well established that CVD are closely associated with endothelial dysfunction. Thus the present study will focus on the endothelium by evaluating both functional (FMD) and systemic (plasma endothelial biomarkers) parameters.
Selected biochemical parameters are usually measured in clinical studies to demonstrate the metabolic effects of studied nutrients. However, these approaches do not properly deal with the complexity of the interactions occurring between nutrients or with the multiplicity of their biological targets. The metabolic approach offers the novel opportunity to investigate the impact of complex food on the whole physiology of the human organism, through elucidation of subtle but highly significant metabolic changes. The present project will highlight the potentiality of metabolic technology to study the health effects of complex food and dietary patterns in free-living populations.
Disposition of data on micronutrients bioavailability (plasma levels) and biological, biochemical and physiological effects will allow establishing correlation studies between "ingested-circulating-physiological effects".
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||30 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Crossover Assignment|
|Masking:||Single (Outcomes Assessor)|
|Official Title:||Effects of Regular and Consequent Citrus Fruit Consumption on Vascular Protection Specific Role of the Component Phytomicronutrients|
|Study Start Date :||October 2007|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||October 2007|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||March 2008|
The College of Agriculture & Life Sciences at the University of Arizona reports that a high-fiber diet can lead to diarrhea. Many fruits have a-high fiber content that can potentially cause you to have diarrhea. One cup of raspberries, for example, has more than 8 grams of fiber, which is about 32 percent of your recommended daily intake of fiber, depending on your gender. If you consume a lot of raspberries or eat them dried in a concentrated form, you might react with a bout of diarrhea. In addition to raspberries, fruits that are notably high in fiber include apples, mangos, apricots, figs, oranges, pears, plums and strawberries, says Everyday Health.