What is the species of this strange insect?

What is the species of this strange insect?

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I first saw this photo long time ago, and I still can't identify the species of this insect:

Looks to be in the family Dictyopharidae, a long nosed planthopper.

This analysis is not absolute as there are exceptions.

There are two features to put it in Dictyopharidae and Fulgoridae. The (tiny) antennae are below the eyes, not between them; and the head has a big protrusion.

The pattern and placement of spines on the legs, and the pattern of veins on the wings would help to identify it to genus level.

A helpful resource is

Picture is of Rhynchomitra spp. from Wikipedia.

Discovery of a strange new snow scorpionfly species in Alaska helped by Facebook

Researchers from the University of Alaska Fairbanks (Derek Sikes and Jill Stockbridge) discovered a strange new insect on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. It belongs to an enigmatic group that might help scientists understand the evolutionary origin of the Fleas. The new species belongs to the insect order Mecoptera which includes the scorpionflies, hangingflies, and snow scorpionflies.

The description has been published recently in the open access journal ZooKeys.

"We process thousands of Alaskan insects specimens into our collections at the University of Alaska Museum every year so it's rare that we see something that throws us for a loop. I called Derek, the Curator of Insects for the museum, into the lab and asked him what kind of insect this was and he didn't even know the order!," said co-author Jill Stockbridge.

With a digital photo in hand they posted the image on Facebook so their entomologist friends could offer their opinions. It's such a strange insect that, not surprisingly, most suggestions were wrong. One entomologist, Michael Ivie, of Montana State University, recognized it as the genus Caurinus of which only one species, from Washington and Oregon, was previously known.

"In addition to being the second known species of such an usual group of insects, we were excited to learn from fossil evidence that these two species belong to a group that probably dates back over 145 million years, to the Jurassic!" said the lead author Derek Sikes.

What is the species of this strange insect? - Biology

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Pollinating Insect-Biology, Management, Systematics Research: Logan, UT


At this Location

Research Interests

My research interests include basic aspects of bumble bee (Bombus) biology and practical aspects of bumble bee culture for pollination. Several species of bumble bees are being screened for traits that contribute to pollination of greenhouse crops: colony size and longevity, defensive behavior, disease susceptibility and the ease of culture. Currently we are rearing colonies from wild-caught queen bumble bees from several western US species (primarily Bombus appositus, Bombus bifariusand Bombus centralis) to evaluate them as potential commercial pollinators. I am also looking at the efficacy of using these species in greenhouses and plastic structures.

I am interested in several areas of bumble bee ecology. One area is the reproductive biology of bees including issues related to polyandry and colony fitness, and dispersal of gynes and males for mating. Currently I am using molecular tools (primarily microsatellite DNA) to evaluate the natural mating frequency of several species of bumble bee queens. Additionally, I am participating in a study of the foraging range of bumble bee colonies and the contribution of wild colonies to pollination of agricultural fields.

Finally, my lab is cooperatively working with researchers at the University of Illinois and the Illinois Natural History Survey to investigate the decline of several North American bee species. My lab is focusing on the range contraction of B. occidentalisin the western US. We are investigating the extent of the range contraction and hope to discover the underlying causes of the recent species decline.

Facebook Helps Identify New Species of Enigmatic Flea-like Insect

The new species, named Caurinus tlagu (pronounced ‘tlu-gu’), belongs to the insect order Mecoptera which includes the scorpionflies, hangingflies, and snow scorpionflies.

The specific name is derived from the Alaska Native tribal language Tlingit meaning ‘ancient, forever’ or ‘old, from the past.’

These tiny flea-like insects measure about 2 mm long and feed on a leafy liverwort that grows in coastal forests.

“We process thousands of Alaskan insects specimens into our collections at the University of Alaska Museum every year so it’s rare that we see something that throws us for a loop,” said Dr Jill Stockbridge of the University of Alaska Fairbanks.

Female Caurinus tlagu (Sikes DS / Stockbridge J)

Dr Stockbridge and Dr Derek Sikes, also from the University of Alaska Fairbanks, are co-authors of a paper describing the new insect in the open access journal ZooKeys.

Dr Stockbridge added: “I called Derek, the Curator of Insects for the museum, into the lab and asked him what kind of insect this was and he didn’t even know the order!”

With a digital photo in hand they posted the image on Facebook so their colleagues could offer their opinions. It’s such a strange insect that, not surprisingly, most suggestions were wrong. One entomologist, Dr Michael Ivie of Montana State University, recognized it as the genus Caurinus of which only one species – Caurinus dectes from Washington and Oregon – was previously known.

Dr Sikes said: “in addition to being the second known species of such an usual group of insects, we were excited to learn from fossil evidence that these two species belong to a group that probably dates back over 145 million years, to the Jurassic!”

Bibliographic information: Sikes DS, Stockbridge J. 2013. Description of Caurinus tlagu, new species, from Prince of Wales Island, Alaska (Mecoptera, Boreidae, Caurininae). ZooKeys 316: 35 doi: 10.3897/zookeys.316.5400

Biologist discovers new insect species, names it after coronavirus

Halil Ibrahimi, 44, associate professor at the faculty of natural sciences at Pristina university, inspects an insect named Potamophylax coronavirus, inside a lab in Pristina. Restrictions during the coronavirus pandemic helped Ibrahimi sit down and complete his research, naming a new insect after the virus and raised public awareness against pollution of river basins. (AP Photo/Visar Kryeziu)

PRISTINA, Kosovo (AP) — Kosovar biologist Halil Ibrahimi believes the pandemic restrictions haven’t all been bad — as a result of them, he completed his research, raised public awareness of the pollution of river basins and named a newly discovered insect after the virus.

Ibrahimi, 44, had spent years working on a research report on a caddisfly species found in Kosovo’s western Bjeshket e Nemuna (Accursed Mountains) national park. That species now bears the name Potamophylax coronavirus.

As an associate professor of the Natural Sciences Faculty at Pristina University, Ibrahimi collected the species, which turned out to be endemic to the national park, 75 miles west of the capital Pristina, and found it was quite different from the other species in the Balkans.

It is considerably smaller, and lives in a different habitat, in open, high-altitude zones, some 2,000 meters (6,500 feet) above sea level.

He announced the new name he had chosen for the species in a scientific magazine this month.

“Coronavirus was the most vivid thing during the time when the species was discovered,” he said.

During his research, Ibrahimi also noticed that the Lumbardhi i Deçanit River, where the new species was found, has severely deteriorated over recent years due to the construction of a hydropower plant.

Kosovo and the Balkan countries have a long history of environmental pollution of all kinds, from sewage water pumped directly into rivers to deforestation and mismanagement of hydropower plants.

“It has the same effect on the species living in the rivers as the coronavirus is causing to humankind these days,” Ibrahimi said.

The overall environmental situation in Kosovo has worsened over recent years, with increased construction, traffic and industrial pollution, as well as the government’s efforts to promote small hydropower plants as an alternative energy source.

“Uncontrolled use of water resources and damage to river beds still remains one of the forms of degradation of our water resources,” according to a report on Kosovo’s environment published last year.

People should “rethink their attitude toward the environment” because these insects are “the first barrier before the pollution comes to the humans,” Ibrahimi said.

“They are the first indicators that something is going wrong in the environment … in order to be prepared for the pollution impacting directly on ourselves.”

Now that the virus and the insect are forever linked via the name, “the institutions must undertake measures to stop this degradation to the environment, and people must start considering these insect species as part of their own life,” Ibrahimi said.

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Evolutionary Dynamics and Consequences of Parthenogenesis in Vertebrates

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What is the species of this strange insect? - Biology

What is a Pest?

We know that certain insects can feed on the blood of people or other vertebrate animals, and can transmit diseases that are very serious health concerns. These are pests. Nearly every kind of plant in nature is food to one insect or another. When insects feed on plants that we as humans dont want them to, they become pests. Agricultural crops and horticultural plants are consumed by a number of different insects and are at risk from the time the seed is planted until the crop is harvested, stored, or consumed. When insects compete for the same foods as humans, we consider them pests. If insects sting, bite, annoy, contaminate, or make life less pleasurable in any way, people consider them pests. Insect pests may damage homes, clothing, or other products that we make, store, or use. Insects that harm us or our animals, destroy our foods, or damage our buildings, structures, or the materials we producein short, compete with humans in any wayare called pests.

Interaction between Different Species | Ecology

In the great web of life, which exists in nature, living organisms not only live in an environment, but are also themselves a part of the dynamic environment for other organisms.

The relationship between one species and another within a community has evolved through their interactions, based on the requirement and the mode of nutrition and shelter and also on the habits of species. The relationships between members of different populations are termed interspecific relations.

The interactions between populations of species in a community are broadly divided into two categories:

(i) Positive (beneficial) and

(ii) Negative (inhibition) interactions.

This depends upon the nature of effect on the interacting organisms of different species.

Positive Interactions:

Symbiosis or Mutualism:

When two species live together in a close association that is helpful to both species, the relationship is known as symbiosis. The oxpecker bird and the rhinoceros exhibit this relationship. The oxpecker receives protection and obtains food from the ticks and other pests infesting the rhino’s skin.

The rhino receives cleaning and warning of approaching dangers. Algae and fungi live together in symbiotic relationship in lichens, whereas the fungi live on the roots of higher plants, and the association is known as mycorrhiza. In lichens, the algae are able to produce food by photosynthesis, and the fungi obtain water and minerals and provide attachment for the lichen.

The bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum found in the root nodules of leguminous plants fixes atmospheric nitrogen in the soil in the form of nitrates which is used by the plant, and in return plant supplies water, minerals and organic food to the bacterium. The cyanobaterium Anabaena also lives in symbiotic association with water fern Azolla. Bacteria in the gut of some domestic animals help in cellulose digestion.

Sea anemone is a typical example of facultative mutualism, wherein animal gets attached to the shell of hermit crab. The sea anemone growing on the back of the crab provides camouflage and protection, and in turn, the sea anemone is transported to reach new sources of food. This type of mutualism in called protoco-operation.

Green Hydra presents another example of mutualism, this animal has green photosynthetic alga in the protective ectoderm. The alga gives off oxygen benefitting the animals which, in turn supplies CO2 and nitrogen to the plant.

Some organisms live together so that one organism benefits by the relationship while the other organism is neither helped nor harmed. This type of relationship is known as commensalism. An example of this association is the relationship between the shark and the small remora fish.

The remoras may attach themselves to the shark as it swims through the water. When the shark finds food, the remoras eat some of the food not consumed by the shark. The shark is not harmed by the remora, while the remora is helped. The attachment of the sedentary sea anemone to the body of a hermit crab and barnacles to a whale are other examples of commensalism.

Some epiphytes, such as orchids, mosses, ferns, etc., are the best examples. Epiphytes depend upon the other trees for support and nutrients. They manufacture their own food but do not help the supporting plant any way.

Several woody climbers (lianas) take the support of the trees for exposing their canopy above ground without doing any harm to the supporting trees.

Negative Interactions:

Certain interactions between different species give rise to negative effect on either or both species. Parasitism and predation are interaction where one species gains and the other suffers. While in the interaction called competition both species are harmed.

This is a relationship in which one organism, the parasite spends much or all of its life living in or another organism, the host. The parasite is dependent upon the host for food.

The parasite benefits from the relationship and the host is always harmed. Parasites may bring about the death of their host, but most often only weaken their host. Human parasites may be external (ectoparasites) such as body lice, ticks, mites and leeches, or internal (endoparasites) such as tapeworms, some types of roundworms, malarial parasite, microfilaria and guineaworm.

The dodder (Cuscuta), broomrape (Orobanche), mistletoe (Viscum), Dendrophthoe, Striga and Rafflesia are parasitic plants. Certain bacteria are parasitic on human beings and animals and cause fatal diseases such as Vibrio coma (cholera), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (tuberculosis).

Salmonella typhosa (typhoid fever), Mycobacterium leprae (leprosy), etc. A large number of fungi are parasitic on several crop plants causing diseases like rusts, smuts, blights, mildews and wilts.

A parasite usually parasitizes a host which is larger in body size than it, and ordinarily it does not kill the host, at least not until it has completed its reproductive cycle.

This is commonly associated with the idea of strong attacking the weak such as the tiger pouncing upon the deer, the hawk upon the sparrow, and the frog upon the insects and so on. A species such as the frog may be both a prey and a predator. The relationship between a snake and a rat is more than that between a prey and a predator as the snake also seeks shelter in the rat holes.

Thus “predation represents a direct and often complex interaction of two or more species, of the eaters and being eaten.” This is a negative interaction which results in negative effects on the growth and survival of one of the two populations.

In this type of association and interaction one species (predator) kills and feeds on second species (prey). Predation is important process in the community dynamism. Predator is always stronger than pery. From population ecology point of view predation is the action and reaction in the transfer of energy from one trophic level to the other.

It represents a direct and complex interaction between two or more species of eaters and eaten.

Parasites and predators have some points of difference, they are as follows:

Parasites, like the predators, limit the population of the host species, but they are generally host-specific, and do not have choice or alternatives like predators.

Parasites are smaller in size and have higher biotic or reproductive potential composed to the predators.

Parasites have poor means of dispersal and require specialised structures to reach or invade the host. While the predators are quite mobile and swift, and capable of capturing the prey.

However, newly acquired predators and parasites are more damaging than the older ones, as the latter are familiar and the species getting affected have adjusted by then.

The amount of food, light, space, minerals and water that are available in a particular habitat is limited. As a result, organisms are in competition with one another for one or more of these factors. Competition occurs not only among individuals of a given species but also between members of two or more species.

For instance, carnivorous animals such as tigers and leopards, compete for the prey. The members of kingdom Plantae, such as trees, shrubs and herbs in a forest are to compete for sunlight, nutrients and water and biological agents for pollination and dispersal.

Populations may compete directly, leading to the extinction or adaptation of one of them. Many animals establish territories within which they live and which they will defend against other of their species who try to intrude. By staying in their own territories, competition and combat are lessened.

(i) Interspecific competition occurs between the individuals of the same species and their requirements are common and,

(ii) Interspecific competition occurs between individuals of two different species occurring in a habitat.

Generally the intraspecific competition is more intense than interspecific competition. Requirements of individuals of same species are similar, and therefore, competition is more intense.

This is a type of direct food relationship where animals such as a vulture or hyena, or a jackal feed on other animals which have died naturally or have been killed by another animal. For instance, the omnivorous animals such as the common crow consume many types of foods including dead animals.

Many insects, reptiles, birds and mammals get shelter and protection on trees and shrubs. Many animals protect them by a highly interesting device, called mimicry. This phenomenon is seen in many insects where they develop a superficial resemblance in shape and colour to specific plant parts on which they live.

The examples are—the stick insect (Carausius morosus) mimics thin dry branches the dead leaf butterfly (Kalima parolecta) resembles a dry leaf, whereas the praying mantis (Mantis religiosa) and Rhyllium frondosum resemble with the green leaves. By their mimicry, they conceal themselves from predators and other foes.

For the survival of a community, the availability of the other nonliving components is also important, and sometimes one of the components plays a dominant role in determining the character of the community. For example, a community having fruit bearing trees may consist mainly of fruit eating animals, such as bats and insects.

On the other hand, in a grassland there will be only seed eating birds, mice, voles and predatory birds living on others lower down the food chain. In a marshy land, frogs, toads, fish, aquatic insects and water birds which feed on aquatic insects are maximum.

Aquatic plants adapted to different intensities of light may be found either at the surface or at different depths in water. Thus the environmental factors act as the determinants of the types of individuals in a community.

What is the species of this strange insect? - Biology

New Zealand Terrestrial & Freshwater Biodiversity Information System (TFBIS). Find out more.

Common name: insects, bugs.

Scienific name: phylum Arthropoda, class Insecta.

Insects are one of the better studied groups of New Zealand invertebrates, but their enormous diversity (there are many thousands of species in New Zealand, and millions of species worldwide) makes it a difficult group to summarize. This page will only touch on the diversity, biology, and habitats of New Zealand soil and litter insects.

The shape and size of insects is extremely varied, yet all of them possess certain common characters. All insects have the body subdivided into 3 distinct regions - head, abdomen, and thorax, although in many larvae this division is obscured. The head has one pair of antennae, eyes (sometimes absent), and the mouthparts, which are variously modified in different orders. The thorax may have wings, although many adult insects and all juveniles are wingless. The wings are membranous and transparent and used for flight, or hardened and leathery and used for protection. All adult insects have six legs (3 pairs), but many larvae are legless, and the larvae of butterflies, moths and sawflies have leg-like extra appendages (prolegs) on abdominal segments. The insect abdomen has 9-12 segments. Insects are divided into a number of major taxonomic groups - orders - based on the structure of their wings, mouthparts, and the type of development (metamorphosis).

Incomplete metamorphosis is found in many groups of soil-inhabiting insects - weta, grasshoppers, cockroaches, termites, earwigs, true bugs, cicadas, and their relatives. In these insects, the hatchlings (which are called nymphs) look like miniature adults, except they may differ slightly in colour. The nymphs are sexually immature and wingless, but may have small wing pads - the buds of future wings. The nymphs often live in the same habitat and feed on the same food as the adults. As they grow, the nymphs pass through a series of moults (up to 9), increasing in size with each moult. During the last moult, the wing pads develop into full sized wings (in winged species). The adult insects do not grow and do not moult.

Complete metamorphosis is found in beetles, butterflies and moths, flies, mosquitoes and gnats, wasps, ants, bees, and in a few other groups (e.g., lacewings). The immature stages of these insects are called larvae. Many larvae are soft and worm-like - such as caterpillars (larvae of butterflies and moths), grubs (beetles), and maggots (flies). Other larvae may be flattened, with longer legs and tougher bodies, but all larvae look nothing like the adult insects they will turn into. The larvae are always completely wingless, and often live in different environments than the adults, feeding on different food. The larvae grow through a series of moults, increasing in size. The last larval moult produces a resting stage, called a pupa. The pupa then moults into an adult insect.

The degree of association of insects with the soil is very varied, from living permanently in the soil and completing their whole life-cycle there, to using soil as a temporary refuge. Many insects depend on soil for part of their life cycle, e.g., many beetles, moths, and flies, and many of these are economically important pests because of the feeding activities of their larvae. The representatives of most insect orders - Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, weta, mole crickets), Blattodea (cockroaches), Isoptera (termites), Dermaptera (earwigs), Hemiptera (bugs), Homoptera (cicadas, aphids, mealybugs), Coleoptera (beetles), Diptera (mosquitoes, flies), Lepidoptera (moths, butterflies), Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, bees) and a number of smaller orders (Psocoptera, Thysanoptera, Neuroptera) are found in the soil. Interestingly, New Zealand has a number of terrestrial stoneflies (order Plecoptera), which live in the damp litter of tussock grasslands of the South Island (Dr. Ian Henderson, Massey University, personal communication).

Weta, crickets, grasshoppers, and mole crickets - Order Orthoptera

Most Orthoptera are large and conspicuous insects, and (perhaps with the exception of mole crickets) are familiar to everyone. Many can jump, using their strong hind legs. Wings may be present or absent. In most groups (grasshoppers, katydids, crickets, weta) males stridulate (rub one body part against another), producing rasping, chirping, or trilling songs. Females may also produce sounds in defense or in response to a male, but they never sing continuously. Cave weta are the exception - they are all silent and deaf. The organs of hearing are well developed in singing species. In most Orthoptera females can be easily recognized by their long sabre-like ovipositor, which they use to deposit the eggs into the substrate (usually soil). All Orthoptera have powerful chewing jaws, and large individuals can bite if handled carelessly. Many groups are herbivores, feeding on plants, but some weta are predators, while others are omnivores - eating everything. The metamorphosis in this group is incomplete - immature Orthoptera resemble small wingless adults.

Weta (family Anostostomatidae, Maori weta).

The giant, tree, ground and tusked weta belong to this family. The weta are medium to large sized wingless insects, with powerful back legs and long antennae. All weta are nocturnal, and males can be heard making rasping sounds at night. All the New Zealand weta are endemic, but other species of weta are found in Australia, Africa, and South and Central America. Rats, stoats, possums, and even cats eat weta, and some weta species are rare and protected. The native lizards, tuatara, birds and short-tailed bats are also predators of weta. Read "New Zealand Weta" by George Gibbs (1998) for more information on these remarkable creatures.

The docile Cook Strait giant weta, Deinacrida rugosa, can reach 7 cm in body length and weigh as much as 30 grams. This weta was photographed on Maud Island, where these weta are still abundant. Image courtesy of Scott Carver, Victoria University.

Giant weta (genus Deinacrida)

Giant weta are the most remarkable (and the most protected) of the New Zealand insects. The Little Barrier Island giant weta (Deinacrida heteracantha) has been recorded to reach 71 grams in body weight, making it the heaviest invertebrate in the world. Giant weta are herbivorous. There are 11 species of giant weta in New Zealand. The largest of them now survive only on predator-free islands, but the scree weta (Deinacrida connectens) is common and widespread on the alpine scree slopes of the South Island. All giant weta, except for the scree weta, are fully protected everywhere in New Zealand under the Wildlife Act.

Motuweta riparia is a tusked weta that lives along the streams in Raukumara Range, East Cape of the North Island. Image courtesy of Jay McCartney, Massey University.

Tusked weta (genera Motuweta and Anisoura)

These are very rare weta found only in few locations in New Zealand. The males have unusual tusk-like projections on their mandibles, which they use in territorial fights. These weta are poorly studied, but it is known that they prefer an animal diet, feeding on live and dead insects and spiders.

A mountain stone weta (Hemideina maori). This weta defends itself aggressively, kicking with its spiny legs and stridulating. If that fails, the weta throws itself on its back, with all its legs in the air, trying to grab and bite the offender.

Tree weta (genus Hemideina)

Tree weta are large (up to 7 cm) active weta with numerous thick spines on their hind legs. The adult males of tree weta develop oversized heads and jaws. Tree weta are frequently encountered by people in and around houses, and when disturbed they present an impressive defensive display, lifting their spiny hind legs. They feed largely on plant material, but may also scavenge. There are 7 species of tree weta in New Zealand. With one exception, tree weta inhabit tree holes and do not frequent soil and litter. The mountain stone weta (Hemideina maori) is the one species of tree weta that is found on the ground. These large colourful weta live under stones and rocks in rocky areas and scree slopes throughout the alpine zone of the eastern South Island, from southern Canterbury to central Otago. Hemideina maori will eat other invertebrates, but may also take some plant matter.

Hemiandrus focalis is a sturdy ground weta found in the alpine zone of the South Island. This weta excavates its own burrows under rocks and stones on the ground. It is quite active and defends its burrow aggressively.

Ground weta (genus Hemiandrus)

Grouud weta are smaller (up to 35 mm), and do not have heavy spines on their back legs. Similar to cave weta, ground weta do not possess hearing organs and do not stridulate. They live in burrows in the soil, often under protection of rocks or tree logs. These are the weta one finds excavated accidentally while gardening. Ground weta are predatory. There are 7 described species, and many more remain undescribed (Johns, 2001).

Cave weta
(family Raphidophoridae, Maori tokoriro, weta taipo).

Cave weta are graceful insects, medium to large in size, with a curved back, long legs, and exceptionally long antennae, which can be 5-7 times the body length. They are common throughout New Zealand in all environments. During the day cave weta hide in shelters - under rotting logs, in hollow tree trunks, in caves, and in other similar places. At night cave weta are active, and can be frequently observed in the open. They are very good jumpers and will jump out of sight if disturbed. Cave weta are omnivorous, eating both plant and animal matter. There are 52 described species in New Zealand, all endemic, and many more species remain undescribed (Johns, 1991 Ward et al., 1999).

Grasshoppers (family Acrididae)

Most of the New Zealand grasshoppers are found in the alpine zone of the South Island, only a few live in the North Island. Grasshoppers are active during the day, and are common and easily seen in tussock grasslands of the alpine zone. There are 15 native species in New Zealand, all of them endemic (Ward et al., 1999), plus one introduced species - the locust (Locusta migratoria). The grasshoppers are herbivores.

Crickets (family Gryllidae)

Crickets are medium-sized (0.5-2 cm), brown or black insects with rounded heads and long antennae. Males are known for their chirping songs. They live in low vegetation and in dry plant detritus, often hiding in burrows or under rocks. There are 5 native species of crickets in New Zealand, plus several introduced ones (Ward et al., 1999). The native New Zealand cricket - Bobilla sp. (Maori rirerire) is less than 1.5 cm in size.

Mole crickets (family Gryllotalpidae)

Mole crickets live underground, building tunnels 10-20 cm below the surface in moist soil, and are not encountered very often. They are 2-3 cm long, elongated, brown in colour, and velvety in appearance, with short antennae and small eyes. The front legs are very strong, broad, flattened, and modified for digging. Mole crickets do not jump. There is one native species in New Zealand, the wingless Triamescaptor aotea, which is threatened due to its restricted range. Mole crickets feed on plant roots and ground invertebrates.

Cockroaches - Order Blattodea (Maori papata)

The appearance of cockroaches is familiar to everyone. They are brown or black in colour, with characteristically flattened bodies, long antennae, and long running legs. Cockroaches live in litter under debris, under rocks and stones, under bark of dead logs, in rotten wood and in other similar environments. They are omnivorous, and may feed on all sorts of organic materials. They can even eat dead wood, which they digest with the help of symbiotic gut flora. There are 22 endemic and 8 introduced species in New Zealand (Ward et al., 1999), some of them have wings, but many are wingless. The juvenile cockroaches resemble adults (incomplete metamorphosis), but are always wingless.

Termites - Order Isoptera

Termites are soft-bodied, light-coloured social insects, which live in colonies in dead wood - often in rotting tree stumps or in decaying logs and branches on the ground. The colony is made of numerous sterile workers and solders (5-8 mm in length), and a reproducing pair, the queen (female) and the king (male). The males and females have eyes and when young, possess wings (four soft, equally-sized wings), which are shed soon after swarming. The workers and solders are wingless and blind. The termites feed on dead wood, digesting cellulose with the help of symbiotic micro-organisms in their gut. There are 3 native species in New Zealand, and 4 more have been introduced from overseas (Crowe, 2002).

The introduced European earwig (Forficula auricularia), about 1.5 cm in length, is common under debris in New Zealand gardens.

Earwigs - Order Dermaptera (Maori hiore kakati)

Earwigs are elongate, slender, flattened insects with a dark body and prominent forceps-like cerci at the end of the abdomen. Some earwigs have short, leathery front wings under which transparent hind wings are hidden, other are wingless. There are over 20 species in New Zealand, most of them native (Crowe, 2002). Earwigs are nocturnal and omnivorous, feeding on all sorts of dead plant and animal matter, as well as on small invertebrates. Female earwigs show parental care, guarding their eggs in an underground nest. Earwigs have incomplete metamorphosis, so the juvenile earwigs look like miniature adults. Earwigs do not bite, and do not enter people's ears, but may pinch the finger with their cerci.

The New Zealand seashore earwig (Anisolabis littorea, Maori mata) is a large (up to 3 cm), wingless native earwig with a dark shiny body, common under seaweed and driftwood on sandy beaches.

True bugs - Order Hemiptera

A group of juvenile bark bugs. Bark bugs (family Aradidae) are dull, dark brown, very flat bugs 5-10 mm in length, often found under loose bark of decaying logs, in crevices of rotting wood, or on bracket fungi. These bugs feed on fungi, sucking the contents of fungal cells.

Hemiptera are also known as "true bugs", to distinguish them from "bugs" as a general term many people use to describe any crawling or flying insect. Some of the true bugs are wingless, but most have four wings, which lie flat over the abdomen. The front wings are leathery at the base and membranous at the apex, and form a protective cover over the transparent hind wings. All true bugs have sucking mouthparts shaped into a long piercing beak, and feed on fluids - plant sap, body fluids of insects and other invertebrates, or even blood. Hemiptera have incomplete metamorphosis. The juvenile bugs (nymphs) are wingless, and often differ in colour from the adults. There are several hundreds species of Hemiptera in New Zealand, most of them native. Many true bugs are found in soil and litter, some of these bugs feed on roots by sucking sap, others are predators.

Cicadas, aphids, mealybugs, scale insects, and others - Order Homoptera

Homoptera is a large and diverse group of insects closely related to true bugs. Homoptera vary greatly in shape and size, but all have tube-shaped sucking mouthparts and feed on plant sap. This group is well represented in soil and litter, where they suck the sap from plant roots. Similar to true bugs, the Homoptera have incomplete metamorphosis.

Cicadas (family Cicadidae, Maori kihikihi)

Cicadas are a constant summer presence in New Zealand. The adult cicadas are large (2 cm and larger) flying insects, which live on shrubs, trees and herbaceous plants, feeding on plant sap. Male cicadas are known for their loud calls. The cicada nymphs live in the soil, often quite deep underground, sucking sap from roots. The nymphs remain in the soil for many years before their development is complete. For its last moult, the cicada nymph emerges from the soil and climbs onto some vertical object above the ground (tree trunks, wooden fences, walls, etc.), holding onto the rough surface with its sharp claws. Moulting into an adult then occurs. The light-brown empty skins of cicada nymphs, still attached to the trees and fences, are a common sight in spring. The adult cicadas are short-lived, they mate, lay eggs and die within one season. There are about 40 native species in New Zealand, the three major genera are Amphisalta, Kikihia and Maoricicada. The species range in distribution from sea level forests to alpine tussock grasslands and scree slopes.

Mealybugs (superfamily Coccoidea)

The mealybugs get their name from the white waxy or powdery secretions that cover their bodies. These wingless insects have soft, oval bodies, with short legs and piercing sucking mouthparts. The largest females can be over 1 cm long, but most are smaller than that. Mealybugs live in colonies, and are sometimes encountered in the soil and litter, where they feed on root sap.

Aphids (family Aphididae)

Aphids are small (< 5 mm), delicate soft-bodied insects with globular bodies and piercing, sucking mouthparts. They usually live in colonies and are familiar garden pests, feeding on the sap of many plants. There are about 115 species of aphids in New Zealand, of which about 16 are endemic to New Zealand (Ward et al., 1999). Several species of aphids occur in the soil, where they suck the sap from plant roots.

Beetles - Order Coleoptera (Maori papapa)

The order Coleoptera, or beetles, is the largest of all the insect orders, and the largest of all arthropod orders as well. The beetles vary greatly in shape and size, but all can be recognized by their thick, hardened wing covers (elytra). These are modified first wings, which serve to protect the second pair of wings, which are membranous and used for flight. The second pair of wings is absent in some flightless beetles. The beetles undergo complete metamorphosis (a small beetle is NOT a baby of a larger beetle), and the larvae look very different from adult beetles. Beetle larvae vary in form considerably in different families. Thirty-six families of beetles are known in New Zealand, and many have representatives in the soil and litter environment. Some of the most common and conspicuous beetles are described below.

Chafer beetles and dung beetles (family Scarabeidae)

The adult beetles feed on plant leaves, flowers, fruit, and also on dung and dead animal matter (dung beetles are often found in pitfall traps). There are about 140 species in New Zealand. The larvae of chafer beetles can be often found in the soil, where they feed mainly on plant roots. Some chafer beetles - e.g., grass grub beetle (Costelytra zealandica, Maori tutaeruru), are serious agricultural pests. The larvae of the grass grub live in the soil and feed on grass roots, causing serious damage to pastures.

Larvae of chafer beetles are characteristically C-shaped, whitish grubs with 3 pairs of slender legs.

Click beetles (family Elateridae)

The elongate click beetles can be recognised by their peculiar ability to "click": if the click beetle is placed on its back, it will jump and turn itself right side up by using a snapping junction between prothorax and mesothorax, with a clicking sound. The adult click beetles are often found on dead logs. The larvae of click beetles are shiny, hard-bodied "wireworms". The larvae live in soil and in dead logs on the ground, where they feed on plant material or on other insects. There are 132+ endemic species and 3 introduced species in New Zealand (Ward et al., 1999). Wireworms can cause damage to potatoes and other crops.

Darkling beetles (family Tenebrionidae)

The darkling beetles are a large and diverse group, one of the largest beetle families. These beetles are dark in colour, and somewhat resemble ground beetles. There are 139 endemic and 10 introduced species in New Zealand (Ward et al., 1999). The larvae of darkling beetles are known as "mealworms" or "false wireworms" , and are similar in appearance to the larvae of click beetles (see Elateridae above). Both adult beetles and larvae occur in dead logs, in litter, and in piles of plant debris. They feed on plant material.

2 cm), dull-brown, flat oval beetle, commonly found in groups in dry well-decayed wood debris.

The larvae of Mimopeus opaculus (fam. Tenebrionidae) are known as false wireworms. These large (5-6 cm long), shiny yellow-brown larvae occur in the same habitats as adults.
The adult huhu beetles (Prionoplus reticularis, fam. Cerambycidae) are up to 5 cm in length, with very long antennae and strong mandibles, which can inflict a painful bite.

Longhorn beetles (family Cerambycidae).

This is another large and diverse beetle family, with 180+ species endemic to New Zealand (Ward et al., 1999). Longhorn beetles are elongate, with narrow bodies and very long antennae. If captured, the longhorn beetles often make a high-pitched squeaking sound, produced by stridulation in the thorax. The adult beetles are often found on flowers where they feed on nectar in other species adults do not feed at all. The larvae live in dead wood. These beetles are not soil animals strictly speaking, but may be found there occasionally.

The huhu beetle (Prionoplus reticularis) is one of the largest New Zealand beetles. The fat cream-coloured larvae (huhu grubs) live in dead wood.

Tiger beetles (family Cicindelidae)

Tiger beetles are iridescent, very active beetles 1.5-2 cm in length, often found on the bare ground in open sunny situations. Tiger beetles are difficult to catch - they are very fast runners, and if approached, they will take off, fly a short distance, and land again several meters away. These predatory beetles are active surface hunters. The predatory larvae are ambush hunters, and wait for their prey inside vertical burrows they construct in humid soil.

Ground beetles (family Carabidae)

Megadromus antarcticus - a large ground beetle (fam. Carabidae) endemic to Canterbury, South Island of NZ.

Ground beetles are the most common beetles found in soil litter. These beetles range in size from 5 mm to over 3 cm in length most are black, often with a metallic shine, and with prominent mandibles - their bite can be painful if the beetle is mishandled. The ground beetles have a variety of feeding modes. Many (but not all) are active predators, feeding on all sorts of soft-bodied invertebrates. Some ground beetles, for example, Maoripamborus, feed exclusively on snails. Many Carabidae are omnivores (feed on both plant and animal material), scavengers, and some are herbovores. Many ground beetles have no wings and do not fly. There are over 426 endemic species in New Zealand, and many more species are still undescribed (Ward et al., 1999). Many endemic species of these beetles have a very localized distribution.

Diagrypnodes wakefieldi, a member of the fam. Salpingidae, is superficialy similar to rove beetles.

Rove beetles (family Staphylinidae)

This is one of the largest beetle families. Most of the New Zealand soil and litter rove beetles are minute, usually less than 1 cm in size. These slender, elongate beetles can be recognized by their very short wing covers (elytra), which leave exposed a considerable portion of the long flexible abdomen. The second pair of wings is neatly folded and tucked under the short elytra. These beetles are predators and scavengers. There are over 1020 species in New Zealand, the majority of them endemic (Ward et al., 1999).

Large (1.5 cm) flightless tussock weevils (genus Lyperobius) live in the tussock grassland of the South Island.

Weevils (superfamily Curculionoidea)

Weevils can be recognized by the shape of their head, which is drawn out to form a long snout. The small mandibles sit at the tip of the snout. These robust convex beetles are common in soil samples, and are often found on the ground. This is a large and extremely diverse group, with more than 1500 species endemic to New Zealand, and more than 50 introduced species. Several large native weevils are very rare. Weevils and their larvae feed on plant material, and many species are important pests. The larvae are fat, C-shaped, usually legless grubs, which live burrowing into the roots, twigs, stems, and seeds of plants.

Flies, gnats, and daddy-long legs - Order Diptera

The Diptera are easy to recognise because they have only one pair of wings. The second pair is modified into tiny drumstick-like organs called halteres, which serve as flight stabilizers. The adult Diptera are agile flying insects, which feed on fluids, such as flower nectar, blood, body fluids, and plant sap. Many adults do not feed at all. The larvae of many species are common in soil and litter, where they feed on decaying organic matter, fungi, plant roots, or prey on other small animals.

The New Zealand glow-worms (Arachnocampa luminosa, Maori titiwai) are common in caves, but also live in soil crevices on steep slopes and under overhanging rocks and tree roots in the native bush, in damp areas sheltered from the wind. They are often associated with streams. The glow-worm itself is a predatory larva of a mosquito-like fungus gnat. The glow-worm lives inside a silken hammock, from which it suspends a fishing line - a long silk thread with regularly spaced sticky droplets of saliva. In the darkness, the glow of the glow-worm attracts small flying insects, which get trapped on the sticky droplets of the fishing line. The worm then pulls the captured prey up, and eats it. The larva grows for 6-12 months, after which it pupates and develops into an adult gnat. The adults do not feed they mate, lay eggs and die within a few days.

The crane flies, or daddy-long legs (family Tipulidae) are typically large (there are small craneflies as well) mosquito-like gnats with very long legs, which they loose easily. The larvae of craneflies are large (1-2 cm), grey-brown maggots, which are common in damp soil litter and in dead wood. They feed on decomposing plant material. There are about 600 endemic species in New Zealand (Ward et al., 1999).

Moths and butterflies - Order Lepidoptera

Adult moths and butterflies are the familiar flying insects, but their larvae (caterpillars) and pupae are often found in soil or on the soil surface. The caterpillars have characteristic long cylindrical body with a well-developed head. There are three pairs of slender legs on the first three segments of the body, and in addition to these, there are fleshy stumpy "prolegs" on the segments 6-9, and 13. Several hundred moth species are endemic to New Zealand. In many families caterpillars feed on mosses, liverworts, plant roots, leaf litter, and detritus. In some species caterpillars live in burrows in the soil, but emerge at night to feed on plants aboveground. The caterpillars of some species can be serious pests. "Porina" is the name given to a complex of species of Wiseana moths (family Hepialidae) whose caterpillars develop tunnels in pasture soil, and emerge at night to feed on the bases of grass surrounding their burrows. Porina caterpillars often occur in high densities and can be very damaging.

Ants - Order Hymenoptera, Family Formicidae (Maori popokorua)

This is a common and widespread group, familiar to everyone. The colour of ants ranges from yellow, to reddish-brown, to black. Ants often build their colonies in soil, under rocks and decaying logs, and in dead wood. The colony includes the queen - the reproducing female (there may be more than one queen), and numerous workers (sterile females) that make up the bulk of the colony. The worker ants are always wingless, but the mating males and females have wings, which are shed after the mating flight. The males die soon after mating. Ants may feed on various invertebrates, plants, nectar and sap, honeydew, and fungi. There are 11 native species of ants in New Zealand, as well as 29 introduced species (Ward et al., 1999).

Visit The ants of New Zealand web page (Landcare Research, NZ) to learn more about these insects and to use the identification key to native and introduced ants.

Included images:

Order Orthoptera Family Anostostomatidae Hemideina maori (Pictet & Saussure, 1891) - Torlesse Range, Porters Pass, NC, South Island (4 images) Hemideina sp. - Makahika, WI, North Island Hemiandrus pallitarsus (Walker, 1869) - Ohinetonga Scenic Reserve, TO, North Island (2 images) Hemiandrus focalis (Hutton, 1897) - Old Man Range, CO, South Island (3 images) Family Raphidophoridae Talitropsis sedilloti - Kahurangi National Park, Flora Saddle, NN, South Island Isoplectron sp. - Canaan Road near Harwood Hole, NN, South Island (2 images) Isoplectron sp. - Craigieburn Forest Park, Cave Stream, NC, South Island (2 images) Pleioplectron simplex (Hutton, 1897) - Craigieburn Forest Park, Cave Stream, NC, South Island Pleioplectron sp. - Ohinetonga Scenic Reserve, TO, North Island (2 images) Neonetus sp. - Kawhatau Base, RI, North Island (2 images) Unidentified species - Dress Circle scenic reserve, WI, North Island Unidentified species - Katikara stream, Taranaki, TK, North Island Unidentified species - Palmerston North, WI, North Island (2 images) Family Gryllidae Bobilla sp. - Ohinetonga Scenic Reserve, TO, North Island (2 images) Order Blattodea Family Blattidae Celatoblatta vulgaris (Johns, 1966) - Te Purere, TO, North Island Celatoblatta vulgaris (Johns, 1966) - Kaiteriteri Road, NN, South Island (2 images) Celatoblatta vulgaris (Johns, 1966) - Craigieburn Forest Park, Broken River Road, Jacks Pass, NC, South Island (2 images) Celatoblatta vulgaris (Johns, 1966) - Craigieburn Forest Park, Cave Stream, NC, South Island Celatoblatta undulivitta - Palmerston North, WI, North Island Celatoblatta sp. - Torlesse Range, Porters Pass, NC, South Island Order Homoptera Family Cicadidae Unidentified species - Palmerston North, WI, North Island Unidentified species - Torlesse Range, Porters Pass, NC, South Island (2 images) Order Dermaptera Family Forficulidae Forficula auricularia* - Nelson, NN, South Island Family Labiduridae Anisolabis littorea (White, 1846) - Okarito, WD, South Island (2 images) Other Unidentified species - Torlesse Range, Porters Pass, NC, South Island Unidentified species - Craigieburn Forest Park, Broken River Road, Jack's Pass, NC, South Island Order Diptera Unidentified species - Sandy Bay, Marahau Road, NN, South Island Unidentified species - Craigieburn Forest Park, Broken River Road, Jack's Pass, NC, South Island Unidentified species - Blue Duck Reserve, KA/NC, South Island Order Coleoptera Family Carabidae Plocamostethus planiusculus (White, 1846) - Karori wildlife sanctuary, WN, North Island (2 images) Plocamostethus planiusculus (White, 1846) - Kawhatau Base, RI, North Island (2 images) Megadromus capito (White, 1846) - Palmerston North, WI, North Island (3 images) Megadromus guerinii (Chaudoir, 1865) - Hinewai Reserve, Banks Penninsula, MC, South Island (3 images) Megadromus antarcticus (Chaudior, 1865) - Hawdon Valley, NC, South Island (3 images) Zolus sp. - Kaiteriteri Road, NN, South Island (2 images) Diglymma sp. - Craigieburn Forest Park, Lyndon Hutt, NC, South Island Agonum sp. - Craigieburn Forest Park, Lyndon Hutt, NC, South Island (2 images) Mecoderma rugiceps (Sharp, 1886) - Hawdon Valley, NC, South Island Mecoderma fulgidum (Brown, 1881) - Hawdon Valley, NC, South Island Mecodema fulgidum (Brown, 1881) - Craigieburn Forest Park, Broken River Road, Jack's Pass, NC, South Island Family Tenebrionidae Mimopeus opaculus - Ashurst Domain, WI, North Island Mimopeus opaculus - Palmerston North, WI, North Island Mimopeus opaculus - Palmerston North, WI, North Island Zeadelium gratiosum - Kahurangi National Park, Flora Saddle, NN, South Island Zeadelium sp., larva - Okarito, WD, South Island, Zeadelium sp. - Okarito, WD, South Island Unidentified species - Te Purere, TO, North Island Family Scarabaeidae Odontria sp. - Nelson, NN, South Island Costelytra zealandica (White, 1946) - Hawkes Bay, HB, North Island Unidentified species - Ashurst Domain, WI, North Island Unidentified species - Canaan Road, NN, South Island Family Elateridae Unidentified species - Craigieburn Forest Park, Cave Stream, NC, South Island Unidentified species - Craigieburn Forest Park, Cave Stream, NC, South Island Unidentified species - Craigieburn Forest Park, Cave Stream, NC, South Island Other Unidentified species - Blue Duck Reserve, KA/NC, South Island Order Hymenoptera Family Formicidae Monomorium sp. - Kawhatau Base, RI, North Island (2 images) * - species exotic in NZ

Some of the literature on New Zealand insects:

Broadley R.A., and I.A.N. Stringer. Prey attraction by larvae of the New Zealand glowworm, Arachnocampa luminosa (Diptera: Mycetophilidae). Invertebrate Biology 120(2), p. 170-177.

Crowe, A. 2002. Which New Zealand insect? Penguin Books, Auckland , NZ. 127 p.

Gibbs, G. 1998. New Zealand Weta. Reed Publishing, NZ. 71 pp.

Meads, M. 1990. Forgotten Fauna. The rare, endangered, and protected invertebrates of New Zeland. DSIR Publishing, Wellington. 95 pp.

Meads, M. 1990. The Weta Book: a guide to identification of wetas. DSIR Land Resources. 36 pp.

Ward, J.B., Macfarlane, R.P., Quinn, P.J., Morris, S.J., et al. 1999. Insects and other arthropods of Hinewai Reserve, Banks Penninsula, New Zealand. Records of the Canterbury Museum 13, p. 97-121.

NZ Insects on the Web:

Weta Geta - A Comprehensive Guide to New Zealand Orthoptera, Includes information on morphology, classification, ecology, and identification keys.

Giant Weta, Christchurch City Libraries. General information: history, habitat, physiology, and conservation of giant weta.

The Tree of Life - Ensifera - crickets, katydids and weta, gives phylogenetic relationships within the groups, and lists the references and websites about crickets, katydids and weta.

Taxonomic List: Blattodea (cockroaches), by Landcare Research, information on 4 New Zealand species with photos. Brief notes on size, distribution and life histories.

Checklist of New Zealand ground-beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae), by Larochelle, A. Larivière, M.-C. Rhode, B.E., (Landcare Research). Includes an overview, the list of NZ species and image gallery.

Ground Beetles, New Zealand Department of Conservation. Notes on distribution, habitat and status of rare NZ species.

Welcome to the Coleopteran Database, Ecology Research Group, University of Otago. An extensive illustrated database and a key to New Zealand beetles.

Grass Grub Life Cycle, by P.G. Fenemore, revised by J.A. Wightman (Hortfact)

Glow-worms, by George Gibbs. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 9-Nov-12 a description of the life cycle and biology of New Zealand glowworm (Arachnocampa luminosa).

Fauna of New Zealand insect series (includes non-soil insects):

Fauna of New Zealand 1 Terebrantia (Insecta: Thysanoptera), L.A. Mound and A.K. Walker, 1982. 113 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 2 Osoriinae (Insecta: Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), H.P. McColl, 1982. 89 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 3 Anthribidae (Insecta: Coleoptera), B.A. Holloway, 1982. 264 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 8 Calliphoridae (Insecta: Diptera), J.P. Dear, 1985. 86 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 10 Tubulifera (Insecta: Thysanoptera), L.A. Mound and A.K. Walker, 1986. 140 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 11 Pseudococcidae (Insecta: Hemiptera), J.M. Cox, 1987. 140 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 12 Pompilidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera), A.C. Harris, 1987. 154 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 13 Encyrtidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera), J.S. Noyes, 1988. 188 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 14 Lepidoptera (Insecta: Lepidoptera), J.S. Dugdale, 1988. 262 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 15 Ambostrinae (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Diapriidae), I.D. Naumann, 1988. 165 pp .

Fauna of New Zealand 16 Nepticulidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera), H. Donner and C. Wilkinson, 1989. 88 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 17 Mymaridae (Insecta: Hymenoptera), J.S. Noyes an E.W. Valentine, 1989. 95 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 18 Chalcidoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera), J.S. Noyes and E.W. Valentine, 1989. 91 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 19 Mantodea (Insecta), G.W. Ramsay, 1990. 96 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 20 Bibionidae (Insecta: Diptera), R.A. Harrison, 1990. 25 pp .

Fauna of New Zealand 21 Margarodidae (Insecta: Hemiptera), C.F. Morales, 1991. 123 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 22 Notonemouridae (Insecta: Plecoptera), I.D. McLellan, 1991. 62 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 23 Sciapodinae, Medeterinae (Insecta: Diptera), D.J. Bickel, 1991. 73 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 24 Therevidae (Insecta: Diptera), L. Lyneborg, 1992. 140 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 25 Cercopidae (Insecta: Homoptera), K.G.A Hamilton and C.F. Morales, 1992. 37 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 26 Tenebrionidae (Insecta: Coleoptera), J.C. Watt, 1992. 70 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 27 Antarctoperlinae (Insecta: Plecoptera), I.D. McLellan, 1993. 70 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 28 Larvae of Curculionoidea (Insecta: Coleoptera), B.M. May, 1993. 226 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 29 Cryptorhynchinae (Insecta: Coleoptere: Curculionidea), C. Lyal, 1993. 307 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 30 Hepialidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera), J.S. Dugdale, 1994. 164 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 32 Sphecidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera), A.C. Harris, 1994. 112 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 33 Moranilini (Insecta: Hymenoptera), J.A. Berry, 1995. 82 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 34 Anthicidae (Insecta: Coleoptera), F.G. Werner and D.S. Chandler, 1995. 64 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 35 Cydnidae, Acanthosomatidae, and Pentatomidae, M-C. Larivière, 1995. 112 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 36 Leptophlebiidae (Insecta: Ephemeroptera), D.R. Towns and W.L. Peters, 1996. 143 pp .

Fauna of New Zealand 37 Coleoptera (Insecta), J. Klimaszewski and J.C. Watt, 1997. 198 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 39 Molytini (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae), R.C. Craw, 1999. 68 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 40 Cixiidae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha), M-C. Larivière, 1999. 93 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 41 Coccidae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coccoidea), C. J. Hodgson and R. C. Henderson, 2000. 264 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 42 Aphodiinae (Insecta: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), Z. T. Stebnicka, 2001. 64 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 43 Carabidae (Insecta: Coleoptera), A. Larochelle and M-C. Larivière, 2001. 285 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 45 Nemonychidae, Belidae, Brentidae (Insecta : Coleoptera : Curculionoidea), G. Kuschel, 2003. 100 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 46 Nesameletidae (Insecta: Ephemeroptera), T.R. Hitchings and A.H. Staniczek, 2003. 72 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 47 Erotylidae (Insecta : Coleoptera : Cucujoidea) : phylogeny and review, Richard A. B. Leschen, 2003. 108 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 48 Scaphidiinae (Insecta : Coleoptera : Staphylinidae), I. Löbl and R.A.B Leschen, 2003. 94 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 49 Lithinini (Insecta : Lepidoptera : Geometridae : Ennominae), J. D. Weintraub, M. Scoble, 2004. 48 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 50 Heteroptera (Insecta : Hemiptera) : Catalogue, M-C. Larivière and A. Larochelle, 2004. 330 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 51 Coccidae (Insecta: Hemiptera), C. J. Hodgson and R.C. Henderson, 2004. 228 pp.

Fauna of New Zealand 53 Harpalini (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae: Harpalinae), A. Larochelle & M-C. Larivière, 2005. 160 pp.

Links and Resources:

Ground Beetles, New Zealand Department of Conservation

Welcome to the Coleopteran Database, Ecology Research Group, University of Otago.

Glow Worms, Wellington Botanical Garden

Click here to contact me if any of these links are broken

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Watch the video: 15 Unbelievably Strange Insects (July 2022).


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