3.3.7: Individual Choices - Biology

3.3.7: Individual Choices - Biology

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Many of the strategies for preserving biodiversity operate at the level of whole governments or large organizations; however, your choices as an individual also play a role in conservation.

The products you purchase have differing impacts on biodiversity. Educating yourself on the origin of products and food that you purchase and choosing the sustainable options can help preserve biodiveristy. For example, arabica coffee can be grown in the shade, meaning there is no need to fully clear rainforest vegetation when growing this species (figure (PageIndex{a})). However, robusta coffee requires full sun, and cultivating it has a greater impact or rainforest biodiversity. Monterey Bay Aquarium provides a sustainable seafood guide, which identifies seafood choices that have a lower environmental impact. Choosing local products reduces the amount of fossil fuels that were burned to transport them to you, thus reducing carbon emissions that contribute to climate change.

Figure (PageIndex{a}): Shade-grown coffee at a Columbian farm. Image by Brian Smith/American Bird Conservancy/U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Northeast Region (CC-BY).

Some products have special certifications that indicate their impact on biodiversity. For example, certified organic products must be cultivated without the use of synthetic pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers, which pollute the surrounding areas. Additionally, they cannot contain genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which have both positive and negative environmental implications. If you cannot afford to buy all organic produce, see the Environmental Working Group's lists of the Clean Fifteen™ (for which pesticide use is already limited) and Dirty Dozen™ (which are high priority to purchase organic or avoid due to high pesticide residues). The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) certifies oil palm plantations that follow standards such as avoiding deforestation and using fire to clear land. Additionally, RSPO-certified business must follow guidelines to compensate their employees sufficiently. Fair Trade Certified™ goods must meet social and environmental standards that support the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals.

Resource conservation is individual choice that can promote biodiversity. In this case, conservation refers to limiting one's use of resources, such as water, electricity, and gasoline. Landscaping with drought-tolerant plants to limit the need for irrigation or using a low-flow shower head are examples of water conservation. Because much electricity is generated from burning fossil fuels, such as coal and natural gas, conserving electricity reduces carbon emissions associated with climate change. Turning off lights and appliances when not in use and insulating one's home to reduce electricity spent on heating and cooling save money and benefit the environment. Similarly, transportation choices such as carpooling, biking, or taking public transportation can limit carbon emissions. Reusing items or not purchasing unnecessary ones also conserves the energy needed to produce and transport these goods and reduces plastic waste, which is particularly harmful to aquatic ecosystems. See chapters about Water Resources, Renewable Energy, and Solid Waste Management for more about resource conservation.

Guide to Planting a Pollinator Garden

Whether you have a few feet on your apartment balcony or several acres, you can promote populations of native bees, butterflies, and other pollinators by building a pollinator garden (figure (PageIndex{b})). The first step is to choose a location. While flowering plants can grow in both shady and sunny locations, consider your audience. Butterflies and other pollinators like to bask in the sun and some of their favorite wildflowers grow best in full or partial sun with some protection from the wind. The next step is to identify your soil type. Take a look at your soil - is it sandy and well-drained or more clay-like and wet? You can turn over a test patch or check out a soil mapper to learn more. Your soil type and the amount of sunlight it gets will help determine the kinds of plants you can grow.

Figure (PageIndex{b}): A diversity of plant species support native pollinators in this pollinator garden. Image by Sara "Asher" Morris (CC-BY-NC).

Next, research which varieties of milkweed and wildflowers are native to your area and do well in your soil and sunlight conditions. Native plants, those that have historically occurred in the area, are the ideal choice, because they require less maintenance and tend to be heartier. Find a nursery that specializes in native plants near you - they’ll be familiar with plants that are meant to thrive in your region. Some examples of pollinator-friendly plants native to California, include the California poppy, California lilac, milkweed, and foothill penstemon. The California Native Plant Society and UC Berkeley Urban Bee Lab have additional plant suggestions. It’s essential to choose plants that have not been treated with pesticides. Choosing perennials will ensure your plants come back each year, reducing the need for maintenance.

Remember to think about more than just the summer growing season. Pollinators need nectar early in the spring, throughout the summer and even into the fall. Choosing plants that bloom at different times will help you create a bright and colorful garden that both you and pollinators will love for months!

Some native bee species use bare soil for nesting. While applying mulch can help control weeds, leaves some bare soil if possible. Some native pollinators also nest in tiny cavities, which may already occur naturally in or near your garden or can be provided with bee boxes.

Make sure to weed and water your garden to keep it healthy. It may take some time, but you will eventually see butterflies and other pollinators enjoying your garden.

Modified by Melissa Ha from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (public domain).

Finally, citizen science provides the opportunity to be directly involved in biological conservation efforts. For some opportunities like Globe at Night, which assess light pollution, or the Lost Ladybug Project, data can be collected independently and submitted online. Others, like bird banding, are scheduled events in which experts train a group of volunteers to complete fieldwork (figure (PageIndex{c})). The federal government's citizen science database lists many such opportunities.

Figure (PageIndex{c}): A volunteer releases a bird after banding. The bird now has an identification band on its leg for future data collection. Image by Alaska Region U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (public domain).

Vodacom Durban July 2021 – Final Field Unveiled

With no surprises in the final field of 18 plus 2 reserve runners, the tension will now build into the big race in ten day’s time, with the official public gallops scheduled for 07h00 at Hollywoodbets Greyville on Thursday.

Snaith 6yo Do It Again – bidding for his third July victory (Pic – Candiese Lenferna)

Justin Snaith goes for his fourth consecutive Vodacom Durban July success armed with a four horse attack, with solid back-up from first reserve runner Silver Host, a good winner of Saturday’s Gr3 Track & Ball Derby.

And the debate over what would be Richard Fourie’s choice in the Snaith arsenal has been answered, with the West Coaster, going for a personal July hat-trick, engaged on dual winner Do It Again, who ran third behind Belgarion in this race last year.

The son of Twice Over has been sparingly campaigned this term, but broke a class record at the course in May, and comes in as one of two 6yo’s with the red-hot Rainbow Bridge.

S’manga Khumalo won the July in 2013 on Heavy Metal for Sean Tarry, and partners defending champion Belgarion.

Only Justin Snaith, Sean Tarry and Candice Bass-Robinson have tasted past success, with the balance of ten trainers looking for their first July trophy.

One man who will be keen to bury a memory is Tyrone Zackey, who will hope that Johnny hero can atone for Smanjemanje’s whisker defeat in 2012.

The provincial representation is highlighted by a trio from the home province, where Tony Rivalland, Alyson Wright and Gareth van Zyl will bid to hold off nine Cape flagbearers, and a sextet from Gauteng, headed by Joey Soma’s bomb, Got The Greenlight.

Vaughan Marshall has a double handed 3yo attack and the veteran must fancy his chances of winning his first July with top-class Linebacker and the dark horse, Rascallion.

She’s A Keeper – done nothing wrong! (Pic – Candiese Lenferna)

There are only two fairer sex gallopers in the field, with rising star Gareth van Zyl and veteran Rob Knuppe looking to realise a lifetime dream with the lightly tried 4yo, She’s A Keeper.

Fanie Bronkhorst has his first July runner with the course specialist Brave Tin Soldier mare Running Brave who will be looking to put in another big-hearted performance.

Notes on Math, Science, and Language Arts

Charlotte Mason used manipulatives to teach math. She emphasized the importance of “things” before “symbols.” She also wanted the children to have a good understanding of why they would perform a certain math function, not just how to perform it. The book Mathematics: An Instrument for Living Teaching will give you all the details on how Charlotte approached math. You can also see live demonstrations of her methods for elementary arithmetic on the 2-DVD set, Charlotte Mason’s Living Math: A Guided Journey.

So choose a math curriculum that uses manipulatives and includes the Why behind the How. Word problems are a great way to explore the Why. Keep lessons short you can do two shorter lessons at separate times throughout the day if you need to.

Not all children need advanced mathematics, such as Calculus. If your child finds math fascinating and wants to pursue it, feel free to do the advanced math courses. If your child is not math-inclined and doesn’t need an advanced course for college requirements, do the Stewardship course and give him practical experience as the family bookkeeper.


Grades 1–3: You can combine your students in grades 1–3 for science if you would like to. The grade-level suggestions give recommendations for living science courses that will help you do that.

Grades 4–6: You can combine your students in grades 4–6 for science if you would like to. The grade-level suggestions give recommendations for living science courses that will help you do that.

Grades 7–12: We recommend that students in the upper grades use the conversational science textbooks listed in the grade-level suggestions. While living books might be more interesting, at this level of study it is difficult to find such books that present current, accurate information. We have also found that many living science books on the advanced science topics teach about the science rather than teaching the science itself. So we list one optional living science book per course as a supplemental read to the conversational textbook. If your child is planning to take college courses, we recommend he or she complete the high school Apologia science courses listed.

Language Arts

Language Arts includes everything you do to help your student hear, speak, read, and write. Many educators break down those four areas into lots of individual skills however, Charlotte Mason combined and integrated many of the skills in her wonderful, language-rich methods. For example, she did not teach vocabulary as a separate subject, but the children’s vocabulary was enlarged as they heard and read quality living books. Other components that are normally classified as Language Arts are included in the Family Enrichment studies and the History studies (poetry, literature, Shakespeare, narration/composition material). You’ll find all the details in the book Hearing and Reading, Telling and Writing: A Charlotte Mason Language Arts Handbook.

UOP SCI 230 Week 3 Individual Cell Reproduction

UOP SCI 230 Week 3 Individual Cell Reproduction
To purchase this material click below link
For more classes visit
Create a 5-7 slide presentation using Microsoft® PowerPoint® wherein you answer the following questions:

• What types of cells and organisms undergo mitosis and meiosis?

• When do organisms use each process?

• Review the illustration of each process in Figure 8.15 in Ch. 8 of Campbell Essential Biology With Physiology. In which phases do the important differences occur? How do these differences affect the end results?

• What would happen to an organism if either process stopped?
Create a 5-7 slide presentation using Microsoft® PowerPoint® wherein you answer the following questions:

• What types of cells and organisms undergo mitosis and meiosis?

• When do organisms use each process?

• Review the illustration of each process in Figure 8.15 in Ch. 8 of Campbell Essential Biology With Physiology. In which phases do the important differences occur? How do these differences affect the end results?

• What would happen to an organism if either process stopped?

UOP SCI 230 Week 3 Individual Cell Reproduction
To purchase this material click below link
For more classes visit
Create a 5-7 slide presentation using Microsoft® PowerPoint® wherein you answer the following questions:

• What types of cells and organisms undergo mitosis and meiosis?

• When do organisms use each process?

• Review the illustration of each process in Figure 8.15 in Ch. 8 of Campbell Essential Biology With Physiology. In which phases do the important differences occur? How do these differences affect the end results.

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